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The 1842 Immigrants from Norway
    by Gerhard B. Naeseth (Volume 25: Page 225)

Many Norwegian Americans are becoming interested in learning more about their heritage; at the same time they are discovering that the passage of time is erasing the memory of the home communities in Norway whence their ancestors came. This problem emphasizes the value of continuing to edit and publish immigrant lists of the kind which already have been made available several times by the Norwegian-American Historical Association. {1}

It is now often possible to examine the original records. The most useful primary source is the Norwegian parish register, a highly reliable record because it has been prepared by the parish pastor or his assistant. It lists the emigrants by family groups, noting full names as a rule, ages, sex, and, most importantly, the date of the certificates given to the emigrants. There are some hazards. Occasionally the record has been carelessly written, sometimes to save space. Not all families troubled to visit their pastor before leaving for America. Some registers have been lost to fire and to other accidents. [226] Sometimes the emigrant changed his mind about leaving the homeland, without going to the pastor. The records for the early years of migration have been deposited in the state archives in Norway. Microfilm copies are available for consultation in the Royal Archives in Oslo and in the library of the Genealogical Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Salt Lake City.

The passenger lists of ships landing in American harbors are most useful, presenting proof that individual immigrants actually arrived in the New World. These records, maintained since 1819, are on file in the National Archives in Washington and may be consulted there, and in the Genealogical Society in Salt Lake City. The Center for Research Libraries in Chicago also has a partial file. Since the lists usually note the immigrants by patronymic only, often with inaccurate spellings, they are not always easy to use.

Ideally, the immigrants should be located easily through Norwegian-American parish listings, and indeed many of them can be found. When it is recalled, however, that formal Lutheran church activity among the Norwegians in America began as late as 1843, it becomes obvious that there is a serious gap in time and hence in recording the presence of the immigrants on American soil. American parish records, too, faced many hazards. For example, the files of the Muskego Lutheran church in Wisconsin were destroyed in a parsonage fire — a most tragic loss for the historian, for in many instances Muskego served as the way station on the journey to western settlements. On the other hand, the former Evangelical Lutheran Church embarked on an ambitious microfilming program during the years 1956 to 1959. This undertaking produced a collection of 415 reels of film, representing perhaps 2,000 congregations. These microfilms may be consulted in the library of Luther Theological Seminary, St. Paul.

As many immigrants affiliated with non-Lutheran religious groups — or simply did not join any congregation — the problem of tracing them through church sources is often difficult [227] indeed. Even in the early years, Norwegians may be found among Episcopalians, Methodists, Baptists, Adventists, and Mormons.

Reference to the census population records can be of help to the scholar, in spite of the fact that American census takers usually had difficulty writing down Norwegian names. The bound volumes are normally found in the various state historical societies; film copies are available in a number of centers, including the National Archives, the library of the Genealogical Society in Salt Lake City, and the Center for Research Libraries, Chicago.

To these sources must be added such printed materials as local Norwegian histories, American county histories, lag publications, congregational and family histories, and county newspapers. Cemetery transcripts and personal testimony can often add valuable data. {2}

Immigrant lists can be of assistance — not only to the family genealogist, but also to the local historian, the demographer, and the sociologist — in tracing population movements and the assimilation of immigrants. They can serve also as a measure of the effect of emigration on the communities left behind in Norway. Careful study of such material will confirm the impression that Norwegians, together with other ethnic groups, have banded together, revealing the extent to which whole settlements in America tend to reflect immigration from one or two Norwegian communities. Careful editing can at times revise the conclusions of earlier historians.

This article deals with the immigrants of 1842, offering an abstract of one year. It is part of a much larger study aimed at recording the basic biographical facts for all of the immigrants of the period from 1825 to 1850. The author would welcome communications from those who believe that they can add to the data concerning these early immigrants. [228]

The year 1842 is the last in which immigrants from Norway numbered less than one thousand. American statistics report 553 persons arriving from Norway and Sweden in that year; the Norwegian records estimate 700. These figures contrast with a total of 1,490 for the previous twenty-two years, according to American sources, and 1,654 according to those in Norway. {3}

The manifests for ships arriving in American harbors in 1842 list 501 Norwegians landing in New York, 18 in Boston, and one in Providence — a total of 520. If we may take at face value the statement concerning the single Norwegian landing in Providence, that he planned to return to Norway, the total number of actual immigrants is 519. Nils William Olsson lists 84 Swedes as having landed in New York in 1842. {4} If we add his figure to ours, we have a total of 553, exactly the figure found in the official American reports. Since, as will be indicated later, a number of other immigrants are said to have arrived in that year, but were not yet identified on a passenger list, the number is probably somewhat higher.

With few exceptions, the 1842 immigrants were farmers. The manifests identify one printer and one carpenter. American records reveal that one person became a businessman, another a blacksmith, and that two became wives of pastors.

Of the 518 immigrants whose origin has been identified, 264 came from Telemark, and 198 from Numedal. Since the majority of those from Telemark were from mountain areas close to Numedal, it appears clear that the influence of such pioneers as Ole and Ansten Nattestad was continuing.

Among the 366 who have been located in American communities, 109 first settled at Muskego, 97 at Koshkonong, 52 at Rock Prairie, 89 at Jefferson Prairie, 24 at Rock Run, and 21 in La Salle County, Illinois.

In 1842 the first ship carrying a Norwegian to reach America [229] was the "Benjamin Morgan" from Liverpool. On the Atlantic journey since February 17, it arrived in New York on April 22 with 145 steerage passengers and a load of merchandise for Hicks and Company. The captain, Henry Johnson, reported having seen several large icebergs. The Norwegian passenger was Charles Anderson, 29, a printer. {5} During the second quarter of the year, the "Elba," captained by John H. Purkis, arrived in Providence from Havana, carrying Charles Domatias, 28, a carpenter, who, as mentioned earlier, planned to return to Norway.

"WASHINGTON"

It was not until August 1 that the "Washington" reached New York from Norway, no port of departure given, having taken 57 days to cross the ocean. Tile captain was Herman Roosen Smith (1812-1900), who made several later voyages to America. In addition to 62 passengers, the ship carried merchandise for Schmidt and Balchen. With the possible exception of a few individuals who have not yet been identified, all came from Telemark. The voyage was described in a letter to Norway from one of the immigrants, who reported that they had had a fine crossing tempered by a brief cholera scare. Further information has been found in a diary written on board ship. A list of the passengers follows: {6}

Halvor Ellefsen Jørrisdal, 47, from Gransherred, with wife, Gro Olsdatter, 44, and children, Gro, 21, Sigrid, 11, Ellef, 17, Ole, 15, and Halvor, 7. The senior Halvor was dead by 1844. At least three of his children settled in Mission Township, La Salle County, Illinois, namely, Sigrid, Ellef, and Ole. Sigrid was married March 17, 1849, to Hans Larsen Folseland, and Ellef was married December 19, 1853, to Anne Larsdatter Folseland. {7} [230]

Ole Olsen Bakka, 38, from Gransherred, with wife, Kari Steensdatter, 24, and children, Ole, 4, and Sigrid, 1. They have not yet been located in America. {8}

Lars Andersen Folseland, 58, from Gransherred, with wife, Anne Olsdatter, 54, and children, Ole, 28, Anders, 26, Christian, 25, Halvor, 22, Hans, 20, Østen, 16, and Anne, 11. This family settled in Mission Township, La Salle County. According to census records, Ole lived for a time in Lee County, Iowa, before settling in Illinois. He probably was one of the two Folseland sons who became Mormons. Anders was married to Olaug Olsdatter Ødegaard upon their arrival in New York. {9}

Ole Anundsen Lunde, 42, from Holla, with wife, Kari Olsdatter, 41, and children, Anne, 16, Berthe, 15, Andrea, 12, Karen, 7, and Anund, 2. This family has not been located. {10}

Ole Halvorsen Aasberg, 35, from Tinn, with wife, Anne Tostensdatter Rue, 36, and children, Halvor, 8, and Kirsti, 2. Aasberg died prior to 1848; his wife settled in Wiota Township, Lafayette County, Wisconsin, where she was married a second time to Hølje Olsen Mæland (1801-1888). Mr. Mæland had emigrated from Hjartdal in 1841. Anne was buried June 26, 1854. {11}

Gunnuf Jonsen Sjøtvedt, 36, from Tinn, with wife, Turi Halvorsdatter, 85, and child, Jon, 2. This family settled in Muskego, where Gunnuf soon died. His widow later married Ole Sørensen Qvisterud (1817-1883), who emigrated from Tinn in 1843. {12} [231]

Olaug Olsdatter Ødegaard, 22, from Gransherred. As indicated above, she married Anders Larsen Folseland.

Hellek Svendsen Urdalen, 27, from Gransherred, with wife, Anne Halvorsdatter, 23, and child, Svend, 1. This family settled at Muskego. {13}

Ellev Bjørnsen Tungen, 27, from Sauherad. Settled in Merton Township, Waukesha County, Wisconsin, where on May 25, 1845, he married Petronella, daughter of Hans Gasmann, leader of the settlement at Pine Lake. Tungen died on a journey to California in 1850, leaving three children. {14}

Several names on the passenger list have not been identified. They appear to be Antony Bjørnsdatter, 23; Svannaug Olsdatter, 1; Niels Ericksen, 27; Ole Ericksen, 17; Fertger Ericksdatter, 61; Gunvor Ericksdatter, 35; Ole Sanden, 23 (perhaps the Ole Sanden who died soon after his arrival in America); {15}

Grace Olsdatter, 29; John Olsen, 26; Ole Olsen, 41. It is possible that these emigrants came from the Telemark communities of Sauherad and Bø, since the records for those parishes are not available.

Richard Bjørnsen Rotkjon, 42, from Vinje, and his brother, Aslak, 16. They settled at Koshkonong, where Aslak was buried May 19, 1848. {16}

Ole Tostensen Aasntes, 58, with wife, Ingeborg Olsdatter, 50, from Vinje; both settled at Koshkonong. {17}

Ole Olsen Skore, 26, Anne, 18, and Hæge, 16, all from Seljord. Hæge has been traced to Dane County, Wisconsin, where [232] in 1848 she married Sjur Sjursen Vangsnes (1826-1900), who migrated from Leikanger in 1844. Hæge died in 1913. {18}

Østen Olsen Folseland, 40, from Gransherred, with wife, Kari Larsdatter Runningen, 30, and children, Aaste, 9, Anne, 7, Mari, 5 Ole, 8, and Lars, 1. This family has not been located.

"ELLIDA"

The "Ellida" arrived in New York on August 9, 60 days out of Gothenburg, carrying 170 Norwegian passengers, primarily from Numedal and Telemark, and 8,916 bars of iron for Schmidt and Balchen. Dean Theodore C. Blegen notes that nine persons aboard ship had died from cholera or typhus, and that thirty were transferred to a New York hospital. {19}

Halvor Nielsen Aae (1781-1856), from Nore, with wife, Guri Halvorsdatter Frygne (1796-1886), and daughter, Gro (1827-1907). This family settled in Newark Township, Rock County, Wisconsin, in the Rock Prairie settlement. Gro was married in 1844 to Lars Halvorsen Skavlem. The Aae home often served as a church for the itinerant lay preachers who were followers of Hans Nielsen Hauge. {20}

Anne Torbjørnsdatter Frygne, 24, from Nore. Not located. {21}

Tore Knudsen Nore, 48, from Nore, with wife, Gjertrud Olsdatter, 44, and children, Knud, 18, Ole (1827-1886), and Sebjørn, 13. This family came to Koshkonong, where Tore died in 1868, his wife in 1884. Knud married Aslaug Thoresdatter Kaasa, Ole married Gjertrud Olsdatter, and Sebjørn married Gunhild Thoresdatter Kaasa. {22}

Ole Nielsen Helle, known also as Stabæk, 53, from Rollag, [233] with wife, Ancken Thorstensdatter Stabæk (1797-1880) , and children, Niels, 10, Ole, 7, Kittil, 3, and Viil, 1. This family settled in the Rock Run settlement in Illinois, where Ole soon died. {23}

Tosten Knudsen Stabæk, 17, from Rollag. Professor George T. Flom states that he was the son of Clemet Torstensten Stabæk; however, the census makes clear that Flom’s reference is to a younger son born in America. Tosten was the son of Ancken Thorstensdatter Stabæk by an earlier marriage to Knut Helliksen Haugen. He settled in Stephenson County, Illinois, where on December 13, 1857, he married Anne Johanne Olavsdatter Reyster. {24}

Gjuri Nielsdatter, 34, from Rollag, with her son, Ole Narvesen, 6. Not located.

Kjersti Gundersdatter, 17, from Rollag. Not located. {25}

Margit Olsdatter Auquandt, 17, from Rollag. Died on the voyage to America.

Ingeborg Gulliksdatter Segelsten, 8, from Rollag. Not located.

Jøran Olsdatter Larsgaard, 50, from Rollag, with her children, Mari, 17, Jøran, 14, Kari, 11, and Ole, 8. Not located.

Narve Tostensen Stabæk, 37, from Rollag. Settled in Howard Township, Winnebago County, Illinois. {26}

Ole Jonsen Lesteberg, 35, from Sigdal, with wife, Rønnou Jonsdatter, 44, and children, John, 8, Olava, 6, and Berith, 1. Not located. {27}

John Ellingsen Solum, 29, from Nes; settled first in Newark Township, Rock County, Wisconsin, and moved later to [234] Winneshiek County, Iowa. Married Helga Pedersdatter. His brother, Knud, 21, also settled in Rock County, where he married Torgon Hansdatter Melbraaten. {28}

Ole Bjørnsen Bøeeie, 30, from Sigdal, with wife, Gunnild Ellingsdatter, 26, and child, Anne, 1. Ole died on the voyage. Family not located.

Ole Christophersen Nyhus (1806-1900), from Rollag, with wife, Torgund Nielsdatter (1802-1884) , and child, Ambjør, 1. This family settled in Clinton Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. {29}

Jøran Tostensdatter Præstemoen, 25, from Rollag. Not located.

Jøran Christophersdatter Asbjørnsrud, 26, from Rollag, with children, Torgun, 3, and Ole, 1. This family settled in Clinton Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. According to the Rollag parish records, Ole Olsen Asbjørnsrud, his wife, Gunnild Christophersdatter, and daughter, Torgun, had planned to leave for America in 1839. More research is necessary in order to learn whether or not this is the same family. {30}

Jens Knudsen Laugen (1823-1854), from Rollag. Settled in Newark Township, Rock County, Wisconsin, where in 1844 he married Sigrid Pedersdatter Vehus, who also emigrated on the "Ellida." {31}

Herbrand Herbrandsen Bjørge, 21, Jøran Christophersdatter Bergund, 18, and Turi Halvorsdatter Bjergeeiet, 25, all from Rollag. Not located.

John Johnsen Landsverk (1806-1887), from Hjartdal, with wife, Anne Pedersdatter Kuttein (1814-1863), and son, Peder (1840-1908). This family settled first in Raymond Township, [235] Racine County, Wisconsin, and later moved to Koshkonong, and in 1854 to Utica Township, Chickasaw County, Iowa. {32}

Haagen Paulsen Nerdalen (1815-1892), from Sigdal. He settled in Clinton Township, Rock County, Wisconsin, where he married Inger (1836-1925). {33}

Lars Olsen Aaseneie, 27, from Sigdal, with wife, Ambjør Larsdatter Aasand. Not located. {34}

Jens Pedersen Vehus (1814-1894), from Nore, with his sister, Sigrid, 19. Sigrid married Jens Knudsen Laugen, mentioned above. Jens Vehus settled at Koshkonong, where in 1863 he married Gjertrud Mykestu (1836-1914?), who migrated in 1862. {35}

Niels Nielsen Lonar (1781-1873), from Hjartdal, with wife, Thone Halvorsdatter (1786-1862), and children, Halvor, 26, Kittil (1822-1903), and Thone, 16, together with Halvor’s wife, Ingeborg Olsdatter (1818-1843) . This family settled at Muskego, where Halvor died in 1891. Flom mentions a Halvor Nelson Lohner who emigrated in 1839 with the Luraas party and indicates that he came from Hjartdal. As the name does not appear with the other members of the Luraas party on the "Venice" in 1839, he may be in error. {36}

Margit Torbjørnsdatter Houghuus, 26, from Hjartdal. Since emigration records in Norway list her also in 1841, and since her name appears on the "Emilie" passenger list of 1841, it is apparent that she had emigrated in 1841, had returned to Norway the same year, and emigrated again in 1842. Not located. {37} [236]

Halvor Olsen Woldkaasen, 23, from Hjartdal. Not located.

Halvor Halvorsen Juv, 31, from Hjartdal, with wife, Gunnild Olsdatter Aslouberg, 31. Not located.

Hans Halvorsen Bromsdalen, 20, from Rollag. Not located. Hans Jonson Hovde, 29, from Hjartdal, with wife, Thone Pedersdatter Hovde, 23. Not located.

Østen Gulliksen Mæland (1812-1878), from Tinn, with wife, Anne Olsdatter Øverland, 30, and children, Gullik, 8, Ola, 5, and Jon, 1. This family settled in Dover Township, Racine County, Wisconsin, and moved in 1857 to Harmony, Minnesota, where Mrs. Mæland died in 1894. {38}

Ingeborg Olsdatter Øian, 26, from Tinn. Not located. {39}

John Leiufsen Vemork, 25, from Tinn. Settled in Norway Township, Racine County, Wisconsin. {40}

Jacob Olsen Einung, 43, from Tinn, with wife, Anne Jonsdatter Saaheim (1798-1842), and children, Susanne (1821-1842), Anne (1821-1876), Asloug, 16, Ole, 13, Jon (1830-1907), Gunnild, 8, Gro, 5, and Østen (1839-1922). Jacob died soon after his arrival in America. His wife and daughter, Susanne, had died on the ocean voyage. The survivors settled at Muskego. Anne was married in 1844 to John Evensen Molie and moved in 1855 to Blue Mounds, and in 1873 to Bloomfield Township, Fillmore County, Minnesota. Asloug was married in 1844 to Hans Torgrimsen Tveito, and in 1911 was still living at Lake Mills, Iowa. Jon was married in 1853 to Anne Svennungsdatter Bergen, moved the same year to Winneshiek County, Iowa, in 1854 to Canton Township, Fillmore County, Minnesota, and in 1894 to Harmony, Minnesota. Gunnild was married in 1851 to Hans Christian Heg, the Civil War colonel. [237] Gro married Elias Stangeland. Østen moved eventually to Harmony, Minnesota. {41}

Hølje Sigurdsen Grimsrud (1796-1856), from Tinn, with wife, Birgit Olsdatter Berg (1818-1887), and son, Sigurd (1840-1897). This family settled at Muskego and moved a year later to Koshkonong, where they remained. Their son, Sigurd, was a businessman in Stoughton, Wisconsin. {42}

Helge Østensdatter Luraas, 16, from Tinn. Not located. {43}

John Alfsen Veset, 28, from Tinn, with wife, Ingeborg Gunleiksdatter Saaheim, 30. This family settled at Muskego. {44}

Sigurd Leiufsen Vemork, 34, from Tinn, with his brother, Ole (1816-1900) . They settled at Muskego, where Sigurd died soon after. Ole later moved to Winneshiek County, Iowa, and married Gro Nielsdatter Rue. {45}

Torsten Egilsen Kleven, 25, from Seijord. He settled in Norway Township, Racine County, Wisconsin, where he married and had a family. {46}

Halvor Johnsen Bursnæs, 40, with wife, Kari Olsdatter, 30, and children, Asloug, 8, Margit, 6, and John 3. Although this family has not been identified, it is tempting to suggest that it is a Børsnæs family from Gransherred.

Gunlek Jonsen Rønningen, 37, from Gransherred, with wife, [238] Anne Jonsdatter Busnæs, 35, and children, Ingeborg, 11, Jon, 8, Aslaug, 5, and Halvor, 2. This family settled in Muskego Township, Waukesha County, Wisconsin. {47}

Christen Jonsen Rønningen, 34, from Gransherred, surely a brother of Gunlek Jonsen Rønningen, mentioned above. He has not been located. {48}

Niels Nielsen Maarheim, 21, from Tinn. He settled in Manchester Township, Boone County, Illinois. He moved in 1854 to Minnesota and later to Barnes County, North Dakota. {49}

Jon Pedersen Tverberg (1811-1895), from Tinn, with wife, Gro Sondresdatter Tverberg (1815-1890), and child, Kirsti, 1. This family settled in Pleasant Springs Township, Dane County, Wisconsin, but by 1860 they were living in Vernon Township, Dodge County, Minnesota. {50}

Halvor Gunleksen Luraas, 28, from Tinn, with wife, Ingeborg Gunnulvsdatter Luraas (1817-1902), and child, Gunlek, 1. Halvor died on the voyage, and Gunlek is said also to have died on board ship; a baby born to this family during the trip died before arrival in America. The widow settled in Racine County, Wisconsin, and moved in 1854 to Bloomfield Township, Fillmore County, Minnesota. She was married again to Ole Hellicksen Kroken. {51}

Herbjørn Nilsen Ingusland (1805-1884), from Tinn, with wife, Aagot Østensdatter Bøen (1808-1887), with children, Aase, 10, Østen (1833-1912) , Aagot, 5, and Nels (1840-1930). After a few years in Muskego Township, Waukesha County, Wisconsin, this family moved to Harmony Township, Fillmore County, Minnesota. {52} [239]

Aasne Johnsdatter Ingolfsland, 64, from Tinn. She was the mother of Aagot Østensdatter Bøen, noted above. {53}

Gullik Olsen Møgstue, 37, from Rollag, with wife, Jøran Amundsdatter, 44, and children, Ole (1825-1902), Amund, 13, Gullik (1829-1904), Birgitte, 9, and Kjærsti, 7. The family settled in Plymouth Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. Ole was married in 1849 to Live Halgrimsdatter Espesaæt. Amund was married in 1848 to Ingeborg Olsdatter Schelde. Gullik was married in 1851 to Gro Pedersdatter Myhren, and settled at Primrose Township, Dane County. Birgitte married Sever Engen, and Kjærsti married Peter J. Snorud. {54}

Lars Halvorsen Sporand, 25, from Nore, with wife, Sigri Herbjørnsdatter, 22. They settled in Spring Grove Township, Green County, Wisconsin. {55}

Christi Torjusdatter Halland, 61, from Nore, with her daughters, Tore Sebjørnsdatter, 28, and Anne Sebjørnsdatter, 22. Not located. {56}

Reier Olsen Møgstue, 29, from Rollag. Probably the brother of Gullik Olsen Møgstue mentioned above. Settled in the Luther Valley community. {57}

Peder Sebjørnsen Helle (1795-1878), from Rollag, with wife, Anne Larsdatter (1797-1842), who died on the voyage. Their children were noted later on the passenger list. Peder settled first at Luther Valley, moving later to Blue Mounds Township, Dane County. {58}

Østen Nielsen Maarheim, 32, from Tinn. Settled in [240]Manchester Township, Boone County, Illinois. The membership records of Jefferson Prairie Lutheran Church list him, together with a wife, Kari Knudsdatter, and three stepchildren, Gjertrud, Ingeborg, and Bertha Andersdatter. Apparently, he married after arriving in America. They moved in 1854 to Minnesota and later to Barnes County, North Dakota. {59}

Halvor Christian Pedersen Funkelien, 41, from Kongsberg, with wife, Margit Gundersdatter, 47, and child, Peder Martin, 6. The Funkeliens settled at Koshkonong, where Halvor in 1845 became involved in a lawsuit with Pastor J. W. C. Dietrichson. {60}

Thomas Johnsen Braaten (1804-1870), from Laardal, with wife, Stina Johannesdatter, 38. After a few years at Koshkonong, this couple moved to Hamburg Township, Vernon County, Wisconsin. {61}

Live Kittelsdatter, 20. Not identified. Another Liv Kittilsdatter, 19, emigrated in 1842 on the "Emilie."

Gro Olsdatter Vindeg, 20, from Rollag. Settled in Deerfield Township, Dane County, Wisconsin, where in 1842 she married Anders Knutsen Himle, a schoolteacher from Voss. She died in 1850 or 1851. {62}

Seven children of Peder Sebjørnsen Helle: Lars, 22; Bergith (1823-1842); Asloug, 15; Hermann, 12; Gotlaug, 9; Jøran, 6; Anna (1839-1931). Lars first settled at Luther Valley and later moved to Blue Mounds Township, Dane County; he was married in 1847 to Kari Torstensdatter Nordhage. Bergith died very soon after her arrival at Jefferson Prairie. Asloug settled at Luther Valley, where in 1848 she married Peder [241] Jensen Wevelstad. The others settled at Luther Valley, but Anna later moved to Blue Mounds Township in Dane County. {63}

Torstein Øysteinsen Bøen, 25, from Tinn, with wife, Kari Øysteinsdatter Ingolfsland, 22, and child, Øystein, aged 3 months. Not located, although this may be the family listed in the 1850 census in Norway Township, Racine County, Wisconsin, as Tostus Estusson, 28, wife, Caroline, 28, and two children born in Wisconsin. {64}

Nils Halvorsen Kravig, 64, from Nore, with wife, Sigri Pedersdatter, 57, and daughters, Live, 28, and Sigrid, 20. This family settled at Rock Run, where Mrs. Kravig died in 1852. {65}

Kittil Juulsen Dokken, 44, from Rollag, with wife, Live Tostensdatter, 33, and son, Juul, aged 4 months. Not located.

Truls Hansen, 37, Anne Kirst., 30, and daughter, Helene Olava. Not located.

Fredrik L. Lund and Marthe Olsdatter, perhaps his wife. No ages were given for this family. Not identified.

Helene Hansdatter Brandt, 19. Settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin, where she married Ole Anunsen Buind. {66}

Hans H. Twede, 49. Not identified.

"CLARISSA"

The "Clarissa," captained by James Lunt, sailed into New York harbor, August 15, having left 54 days before from Gothenburg. The ship carried 96 pasengers, including 82 Norwegians, in addition to some iron intended for Boorman, Johnston and Company. The captain reported having sighted a large number of icebergs on the passage. {67}

Nils Guldbrandsen, 27, with wife, Maria, 25, and daughter, Karen, 3. Not identified.

Niels Olsen Smetbak (1810-1878), from Nore, with wife, Barbro Gundersdatter (1815-1874). Settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. {68}

Turi Olsdatter Lien, 29, with daughter, Barbara, 3. Turi’s husband, Ole Helgesen Lien, from Rollag, had emigrated in 1841, settling in the Koshkonong area. Ole died in 1851, and Turi was married again in 1854 to Lars Tovsen Nore. In the 1850 census, Barbara is listed with the Niels Olsen Smetbak family. {69}

Gjertru Olsdatter Smetbak (1822-1869), from Nore. Settled in Koshkonong Township, Jefferson County, Wisconsin, where in 1846 she married Ole Toresen Nore. {70}

Ragnild Toresdatter Øgtedalen, 19, from Nore. Not located. {71}

Lars Gundersen Flate, 30, from Nore, with wife, Turi Knudsdatter, 24, and children, Ambjør, 3, and Gunder, 1. Gunder apparently was not included in the passenger list. This family settled first in the Rock Run settlement in Illinois, and later in Newark Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. {72}

Herbrand Tollefsen Mørkvolden, 46, from Nore, with wife, Guri Gulbrandsdatter, 45, and child, Ragnild, 10. This family settled at Koshkonong, where Herbrand died in 1846. {73}

Aasuld Knudsen Høstvedt, 19, from None. Not located. {74}

Bjørn Guibrandsen Mørkvolden, 42, from Nore, with wife, Ambjør Gjermundsdatter, 45, and children, Gulbrand, 6, Toni, 3, and Veil, 1. The last two were apparently omitted [243] from the passenger list. This family settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. {75}

Lars Simonsen Lofsgaard (1805-1854), from Rollag, with wife, Gunild Tostensdatter (1796-1851), and children, Simon, 10, and Guri, 7. The family settled in Newark Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. {76}

Ragnild Halvonsdatter Lofsgaarden, 75, a widow from None, perhaps the mother of Lars or Gunild mentioned above. Not located. {77}

Tore Olsen Kaasa, 42, from None, with wife, Anne Tostensdatter, 44, and children, Asloug, 11, and Ole, 19. Settled in Koshkonong Township, Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Asloug was married in 1846 to Knud Toresen Nore. {78}

Lars Olsen Evju, 39, from None, with wife, Ingeborg Nielsdatter, 39, and children, Ole, 9, and Peter, 3. This family settled in Oakland Township, Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Another child, Sigri, 7, was not noted on the passenger list. {79}

Gunild Nilsdatter Svensrud, 39, and Ragnild Nilsdatter Svensrud, 12, both from Nore. Not located. {80}

Tosten Olsen Svensrud, 21, from Rollag. Not located. {81}

Torbjørn Nelsen Kaasa, 21, from None. Not located. {82}

Knud Nielsen Landrud, 39, from Rollag, with wife, Ingeborg Herbrandsdatter Ødegaard, 40, and children, Kari, 12, Aase (1831-1903), Ingeborg, 8, Niels, 6, Herbrand, 3, and Knud, 1. This family settled in Clinton Township, Rock County, Wisconsin, and moved in 1853 to Primrose Township, Dane County. Knud and Herbrand served in the Civil War, Knud with the Fifteenth Wisconsin Regiment, and Herbrand with the Thirty-second Iowa. Aase was married in 1848 to Ole [244] Jensen Hatlestad, who emigrated in 1846 from Skjold and later became president of the Augustana Lutheran Synod. {83}

Kari Amundsdatter Landrud, 64, from Rollag. The mother of Knud Nielsen, above, she settled in Clinton Township. {84}

Sondne Nielsen Maarheim, 34, from Tinn, with wife, Kari Nielsdatter Landerud, 37, and children, Niels, 11, Kari, 9, Østen, 7, Helga, 5, Knud, 3, and Sondre, 1. Flom gives the name as Maaren. The Maarheim family settled first in Norway Township, Racine County, Wisconsin, moved later to Clinton Township, Rock County, and finally to Cresco, Iowa. {85}

Halvor Asbjørnsen Berge, 45, from Kviteseid, with wife, Birgit Egildsdatter, 40, with children, Hæge, 15, Liiv, 12, Asbjørn, 9, Osmund, 5, and Ole, 2. This family, which also used the name of Juve, settled at Koshkonong. {86}

Halvor Halvorsen Brenna, 40, from Gransherred, with wife, Ingebong Olsdatter, 38, and children, Susanna, 4, and Ragnild, 3. Not located.

Aanund Aadnesen Bjaaen, 64, from Seljord, with wife, Liv Pedersdatter, 52, and children, Halvor, 14, and Hæge, 11. The family settled first at Muskego, where Aanund died in 1847; they moved later to Koshkonong. Halvor, as a widower, was married in 1847 to Anne Torbjørnsdatter Frøgner, and Hæge in 1849 manned Osmund Nerisen Tveten. {87}

Aadne Aanundsen Bjaaen, 26, from Seljord, with wife, Liv Sigvaldsdatter, 28, and children, Olaf, 4, and Aanund, 2. Aadne was the son of Aanund Aadnesen mentioned above. This family settled first at Muskego, moved on to Koshkonong, and by [245] 1850 had settled in Wiota Township, Lafayette County, Wisconsin. {88}

Halvor Ellefsen Hougene, 36, from Kviteseid, with wife, Sissell Halvonsdatter, 50, and children, Anne, 17, and Asloug, 14. Not located. {89}

Østen Olsen Storehoug, 34, from Rauland, with wife, Hæge Halvorsdatter, 30. Not located. {90}

Ole Halvorsen Kirkebøe, 43, from Rauland. Not located.

Ole Olasultuenta, 37. Not identified.

Knud Hansen Kolstrud, 27, from Sigdal, who had come to America earlier and had returned in 1842 to arrange for an inheritance for his daughter. He migrated again in 1842 and, according to rumor, died before 1844. {91}

"TRITON"

The "Triton," Z. M. Stenburg captain, entered the port of Boston on August 12; the passenger list, however, is dated August 15. It sailed out of Gothenburg on June 11 with seven Norwegians on board. {92}

Bjørn Tofsen Wasberg, 32, from Laardal, settled at Koshkonong, where in 1852 he married Tone Andresdatter Brakke. He later moved to Minnesota. {93}

Halvor Hansen Dalestøl, 28, from Kviteseid, settled at Koshkonong and later moved to Houston County, Minnesota. {94}

Ole Johnsen Magnuskommen, 35, from Kviteseid, with wife, Margit Ougundsdatter, 31, and a child, John, 1. Not located. {95}

Christen Olsen, 26, from Vinje, with wife, Aasne Aslaksdatter, 26, settled in Rochester Township, Racine County, Wisconsin. {96} [246]

"SAMOS"

The "Samos," captained by William Reed, arrived in Boston on August 16, having sailed out of Gothenburg on July 2. Eleven Norwegians were listed as passengers. {97}

Godskalk Willeson, 28. Not identified.

Ole Nielsen Næsset, 37, from Rollag, with wife, Viil Toresdatter, 36. The manifest simply mentions "child" at the end of the list. It appears likely, however, that several children accompanied their parents, including the following: Niels, 13, Ambjør, 6, Torgund, 3, and Niels, 1. Not located. {98}

Eric Johnson, 29. Not identified.

Knud Gunulsen Tvedteiet, 26, probably the Knut Gunnelsen Tveten (1817-1898) who settled in the Bonnet Prairie area of Columbia County, Wisconsin. Flom states that he came in 1844. {99}

Sebjørn Pedersen Helle, 24, from Rollag. The other members of the family came on the "Ellida." Sebjørn is listed as an emigrant in 1837 in the Rollag parish records; however, he is probably the S. Dustu noted on the passenger list of the "Emilie" in 1839, since he was also known as Dusterud. If this conclusion is correct, it suggests that he returned to encourage the family to emigrate in 18492. He settled in the Wiota area and married Helene Johannesdatter. {100}

Lars Knudson, 30, and Ann Reynolds, 26, not identified.

Hellik Helliksen Førlie, 30, from Flesberg, with wife, Sigrid Timansdatter, 27, who probably brought four children with them: Hellik, 9, Anders, 7, Marith, 4, and Christopher, 1. Settled at Koshkonong. {101} [247]

"EMILIE"

The "Emilie" made several voyages to America, bringing Norwegians to their new country. In 1842, with Thomas Anchersen as captain, it arrived in New York on August 17, 55 days out of Drammen. In addition to 116 passengers, it carried 300 tons of iron for Schmidt and Balchen. The captain recorded having passed several icebergs. {102}

Halvor Haralsen, 23, and Mathias Haralsen, 18. Not identified.

Johannes Christiansen Vælufsen, 40, from Hjartdal, with wife, Man Johnsdatter Balaas, 29, and children, Christian, 17, and Ingeborg, 8. They settled in Muskego Township, Waukesha County, Wisconsin. {103}

Anne Christensdatter, 22, not identified.

Ole Aanundsen Haatvedt, 20, from Kviteseid, who settled in Clinton Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. He married Ragnild Andersdatter Nordjordet. {104}

Martinus Stalsberg, 33, from Kongsberg, not located. Stalsberg is a farm name in the Norwegian community of Modum. {105}

Aslak Olsen Ølsness (1819-1897) ,from Vinje, who settled in Cottage Grove Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. He moved in 1870 to Otter Tail County, Minnesota. He took the name Alexander Norman and married Anna Olsdatter. He served as county treasurer in 1875. One source states that he traveled with his fiancee via Quebec. {106}

Halvor Aslaksen Kostvedt, 25, from Vinje, with his wife, Sigrid Osmundsdatter Midsøe, 22. They settled in Cottage [248] Grove Township, Dane County, where Sigrid died in 1852. Halvor moved to Waseca County, Minnesota, and later to Chippewa County, Minnesota, where he died. {107}

John Tarjesen Kostvedt, 23, from Vinje, not located. {108}

Christopher Helliksen Førlie, 48, from Flesberg, with wife, Gundbjørg Helliksdatter Solheim, 40, and children, Hellik, 21, Christopher, 10, and Jøran, 6. In 1850 the three children were living in Adams Township, La Salle County, Illinois, where Hellik died in 1854. {109}

Berith Olsdatter Huslende, 24, from Flesberg. Not located. {110}

Engebret Pedersen Haugen (1801-1875) , from Sigdal, with wife, Ingerid Gudbrandsdatter Teige (1802-1896), with their son, Peder (1833-1917) . They settled first in the Rock Prairie settlement and later moved to Winneshiek County, Iowa. {111}

Ole Gunbjørnsen Møen, 19, from Sigdal. Not located. {112}

Erik Klemetsen Kopsengeie, 37, from Sigdal, with wife, Guri Engebretsdatter Skaalia, 32, and child, Eli, 16, settled in Muskego Township, Waukesha County, Wisconsin. {113}

Ole Knudsen Øen, 44, from Sigdal, with wife, Gunnild Engebretsdatter, 44, and children, Margith, 16, and Kari, 7, settled in Palmyra Township, Jefferson County, Wisconsin. {114}

Erik Johnsen Aaseneie, 24, from Sigdal, with wife, Ingeborg Palmesdatter Skare, 25, and her mother, Kristine Andersdatter Skare, 50, settled in Muskego Township, Waukesha County, Wisconsin. {115} [249]

Gunder Bjørnsen Kopsengeie, 33, from Sigdal, with wife, Kari Engebretsdatter Skaalia, 32, and children, Bjørn, 12, Engebret (1829-1911) , and Signe, 7. The family settled first at Muskego and moved in 1850 to the Washington Prairie settlement, near Decorah, Iowa. {116}

Emil Dahm, 20, not identified. The name appears to be German.

Gunder Gundersen Washovd, 60, from Flesberg, with wife, Kirsti Helliksdatter Kvasshovd, 54, settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. {117}

Juul Gislesen Hamre (1805-1884) ,from Flesberg, with wife, Anne Gunnarsdatter (1812-1880), and child, Gisle, 2, settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. {118}

Torsten Ledvorsen Bergerud (1810-1857), with wife, Kirsti Gundersdatter Kvasshovd (1815-1896), from Flesberg, settled at Koshkonong. {119}

Hellik Gundersen Washovd (1809-1890), from Flesberg, settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, where in 1845 he married Marith Levorsdatter Bergerud. {120}

Ole Anundsen Buind, 24, from Flesberg, settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin, where he married Helene Hansdatter Brandt, who had come the same year on the "Ellida." {121}

Anne Gislesdatter Hamre (1797-1887) ,together with Gullik Gulliksen Hamre, 28, and Kari Gulliksdatter Hamre, 9, all from Flesberg. Anne was the second wife of Gullik Gislesen Hamre, who emigrated in 1846. Perhaps Gullik and Kari are [250] her children by an earlier marriage. Anne settled first at Koshkonong and moved later to Waushara County, Wisconsin. {122}

Kistie Juelsdatter, 20, not identified.

Marie Gulbrandsdatter, 49, a widow from Flesberg. {123}

Kristi Kristoffersdatter (1826-1908) , from Flesberg, settled in Christiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin, where in 1845 she married Halvor Larsen Kravick, who emigrated in 1843 from Sigdal. {124}

Christian Hendricksen, 26, with wife, Maren Olsdatter, 26, and an 8-month-old child, Karen Marie, settled first at Wiota, moving in 1846 to Primrose Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. This family was from Lier. {125}

Ole Olsen Rustad, 26, not identified.

Hermo Nilsen Tufte (1798-1883) , from Hol, with wife, Kari Tolleivsdatter Hallsteinsgard (1801-1871), and children, Sigrid (1824-1904) , Birgit, 18, Nils, 8, and Jørand (1840-1928). The family settled in Raymond Township, Racine County, Wisconsin. Sigrid was married in 1843 to Elling Eielsen Sunve, the well-known religious leader among the followers of Hans Nielsen Hauge. Birgit was married in 1854 to Anon Bjørnsen Dahle, who emigrated in 1848 from Nissedal and later was a merchant at Daleyville, Wisconsin. Nils married a daughter of Ole Sanderson, and Jørand was married in 1859 to Thomas Monsen Adland. {126}

Asle Hølgesen Tufto, 48, from Hol, not located. {127}

Hølje Toresen Kirkjorden (1791-1872), from Rollag, with [251] wife, Christi Olsdatter (1783-1876), and daughter, Kirsti, 21, settled in Clinton Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. {128}

Knud Gundersen, 23, not identified.

Ole Torsen Kirkjorden, 16, from Rollag, not located. {129}

Ole Pedersen Engen, 27, from Flesberg, with wife, Tone Kittilsdatter, 25, and daughter, Gunnild Maria, aged 1 year and 8 months. This family settled in Clayton Township, Winnebago County, Wisconsin. {130}

Torkild Olsen Hvammen (1813-1898), from Rollag, with wife, Anne Aslesdatter Kjønaas (1813-1897), and son, Ole, 1, settled in Beloit Township, Rock County, Wisconsin. {131}

Steen Gundersen Aasberg, 28, and Sjul Gundersen Aasberg, 34, both from Rollag, not located. {132}

Ole Olsen Gaarder, 26, from Rollag, with wife, Kari Larsdatter Kvisle, 23, settled in the Rock Run area of Illinois. {133}

Knud Halvorsen Glaimeiet, 32, from Rollag, with wife, Ragnild Nielsdatter, 50. The parish records of Rollag indicate that this couple had emigrated in 1839. If so, both of them came again in 1842 and settled in the Rock Prairie community, where Ragnild died in 1847. {134}

Live Halgrimsdatter Glaim, 22, from Rollag, settled at Rock Run. {135}

Ole Svendsen Præsteneiet, 55, from Rollag, with wife, Ingeborg Olsdatter, 54, and children, Ole, 22, Svend, 20, and Jøran, [252] 18, settled in the Rock Run community in Stephenson County, Illinois. {136}

Halvor Olsen Brekkeeiet, 53, from Rollag, with wife, Mari Eriksdatter, 50, and children, Liv, 22, and Tollef, 14, not located. {137}

Marit Ledvorsdatter Bergerud (1813-1890) and Berith Ledvorsdatter Bergerud, 24, both from Flesberg. They settled at Koshkonong, where in 1845 Marit married Hellik Gundersen Washovd and Berith married Eigil Aslaksen Lien. {138}

Halvor Kittilsen Galager, 28, and Liv Kittilsdatter Galager (1824-1917), both from Rollag. Halvor married Kari Christiansdatter. Liv settled at Luther Valley, where she married Anund Knudsen Halland. They moved to Beloit about 1888. {139}

Gunild Knudsdatter Bjørnsrud (1818-1884), from Rollag, settled in Plymouth Township, Rock County, Wisconsin, where in 1852 she married Paul Halvorsen Skavlem (1803-1866) , who had emigrated from Rollag in 1841. {140}

Amandus Gundersen, 33, his wife, Maren Elisabeth, 30, and their children, Lovise Bergethe, 10, Carl or Paul Hagbert, 8, Christine Johanne, 4, and Sally Karen Berg, 4 months. Not identified.

Two men with the name of Niels Nielsen Rollaug, aged 25 and 19. Not identified.

Ole Arnesen, 23, with wife, Jøger Knistine, 21. Not identified. Knut Gjermundsen Gullstein, 38, from Hol. Parish records at Hol indicate that he had first emigrated, or intended to emigrate, in 1839. {141}

Niels Hansen Katterud (1798-1875), from Lier, with wife, [253] Live Bentsdatten Brunberg (1795-1861) , with children, Christiane, 15, Larine, 8, and Marie, 5. The family settled first in Norway Township, Racine County, Wisconsin, and moved later to Springfield Township, Winneshiek County, Iowa. Marie married Ole A. Andersen, a Civil War veteran, and Larine in 1856 married Erik Endresen Rude. {142}

Martin Knudsen, 33, not identified.

John Emil Johnsen, aged 1 month, born on the voyage but not identified.

"RECTOR"

The "Hector," captained by Alfred G. Spencer, made New York on August 19, having left Havre on July 14 carrying merchandise intended for E. D. Hurlbut. Two Norwegian passengers were listed. {143}

Osmund Osmundsen Midsøe, 43, from Vinje, with his son, Osmund, 15. They settled at Muskego, then moved in 1843 to Chnistiana Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. According to the parish records at Vinje, Osmund’s wife, Sissel Aslaksdatter, 47, and two daughters, Inger, 7, and Margit, 5, also emigrated in 1842, but their names do not appear on the manifest. {144}

"TUSKINA"

The "Tuskina," Frederick W. Spencer, captain, arrived in New York September 5, 38 days out of Havre. The ship carried 89 steerage passengers, including 68 Norwegians, and some merchandise for E. D. Hurlbut. {145}

Knud Hansen Svartdal, 51, from Seljord, with wife, Anne Evensdatter, 47, and children, Even, 16, Halvor, 13, and Ole, [254] 6. This family settled in Boone Township, Boone County, Illinois, where Knud died in 1849. {146}

Svennung Johnsen Tytegraf, 50, from Kviteseid, with wife, Turi Johannesdatter Skare, 34, and children, Margit, 13, Johannes, 11, Gunild, 8, Maren, 6, Birgit, 4, and Jon, 6 months. Mr. Tytegraf had come to Kviteseid from Seljord in 1825. The family came first to Muskego, where Gunild, Birgit, and Jon died. Mr. Tytegraf apparently died in 1852. Two years later the remaining members of the family moved to Trempealeau Valley, Wisconsin. {147}

Kittil Høljesen Ytterbøe, 22, from Kviteseid, not located. {148}

Aslak Kittilsen Moestøl, 23, and Halvor Evensen Ofte, 20, both from Laardal, not located. {149}

Ole Høiesen Aasheim, 28, from Seljord, with wife, Margit Sondresdatter, 21, and child, Johanne, 6 months, settled at Koshkonong. {150}

Torkel Kittilsen Lislerud, 60, from Tinn, with wife, Jøran Simonsdatter Sønstegaard, 54, and son, Ole (1826-1905) . Settled first at Muskego and later moved to Pleasant Springs Township, Dane County. Ole moved in 1864 to Burbank Township, Kandiyohi County, Minnesota; he married Gunhild Olsdatter Reine in 1848. {151}

John Jonsen Bresnæs, 46, from Gransherred, with wife, Aasne Jonsdatter, 49, and children, Anne, 21, Thora, 18, John, 15, Helleck, 12, Asloug, 9, and Halvor, 6. Not located. {152}

Ole Olsen Bergend, 39, from Gransherred, with wife, Aslou Rollefsdatter, 35, and children, Bergith, 14, Torgon, 10, Rollev, [255] 7, Margith, 3, and Ole, 6 months. Settled in Boone Township, Boone County, Illinois. {153}

Ole Gulliksen Barstad, 53, from Seljord, with wife, Ingeborg Jonsdatter, 43, and children, Wetle, 8, Even, 6, and Halvor, 2. Settled at Koshkonong. {154}

Ole Hansen Hove, 39, from Gransherred, with wife, Gro Gjermundsdatter Hove, 38, and children, Hølje, 7, and Gunnild, 1. Settled in Pleasant Springs Township, Dane County, ‘Wisconsin. {155}

Kittil Kittilsen Hove, 30, from Gransherred, not located. {156}

Saamund Aslaksen Aae, 56, from Laardal, not located. {157}

Ole Tarjussen Jordal, 20, from Fyresdal, settled in Boone Township, Boone County, Illinois, where he married Kari Kjøstolsdatter. {158}

Anders Gundersen Heisholt, 49, from Holla, with wife, Elisabeth, 39, and children, Gunder (1828-1910) , Trine, 11, Karen, 9, Ann Marie, 4, and a child, 1. By 1860 Gunder was a blacksmith in Whitewater, Wisconsin, where he married Anne Hellen Halvorsdatter. {159}

Johannes Gundersen, 52, not identified.

Even Svennungsen Slettestøl, 47, from Seljord, with wife, Margit Guttormsdatter, 43, and children, Svennung, 19, Guttorm, 17, Gunild, 16, Turi, 13, Kittle, 11, Asloug, 9, Tone, 7, Ole, 4, Even, 2. Svennung settled at Rock Prairie, where he married Torbjør Pedersdatter. {160} [256]

OTHER IMMIGRANTS

Evidence suggests that a number of immigrants, other than those identified on the manifests, made their way to America in 1842. It is possible that one or more passenger lists have been lost; most certainly there are gaps in the files. It may also be that names have been transcribed incorrectly, and hence have failed to be recognized. Some immigrants may have indicated in their home parishes that they were leaving for America and then changed their minds without informing the local authorities.

At least one couple came by way of Quebec: Hans Halvorsen Smedsrud (1804-1872), from Nordre Land, with wife, Man Olsdatter (1813-1890). They settled first at Rock Prairie and moved in 1853 to St. Ansgar Township, Mitchell County, Iowa. {161}

Vetle Gundersen Felland (1819-1899), from Mo in Telemark. The Mo parish records clearly state that Felland emigrated in 1842; however, there is no supporting evidence. On the other hand, several sources make clear that he emigrated with his family in 1846 on the "Washington" and settled in Pleasant Springs Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. {162}

Thirty-four others were listed in Norwegian records as planning to emigrate in 1842, but no confirming evidence has been found.

In Gransherred: Ole Jonsen Sanden, 41, with wife, Kari Olsdatter, 42, and children, Gro, 16, Jon, 10, and Ole, 8. {163}

In Rauland: Aslak Evensen Texberg, 23; Østen Halvorsen Trovatten, 22; Ole Aslaksen Brubakken, 35, wife, Rannei Olsdatter, 30, and children, Birgitte, 9, and Ole, 7. {164}

In Rollag: Jøran Tocker (?), 17; Gulbrand Hansen Mørkvolden, 72, and wife, T Bjørnsdatter, 69; Niri Nirisen [257] Næsset, 44, and wife, Live J_____datter, 44; Tørris Nore, 29, and wife, Bertha Larsdatter; Kittil Andersen Hoff, 34; Live E_____datter Land, 29; Chrispinusdatter Dokken, 15. {165}

In Mo: John Halvorsen Midbøe, 23. {166}

In Nore: Lars Sebjørnsen Øverndalen, 20; Ole Hansen Kobbergaard, 22; Gro Toresdatter Brodenes, 29. {167}

In Laardal: Ole Olsen Ormestøl, 30. {168}

In Øystre Slidre: Gudbrand Trondsen Hedalen, 29, and Niels Trondsen Hedalen, 26. {169}

In Modum: Halvor Larsen Lysenstøen. {170}

In Sigdal: Ole Olsen Grønhovdeie, 31, wife, Randi Ellefsdatter, 30, and daughter, Ingeborg, 2. {171}

In Hjartdal: Knud Olsen Aslaugberg, 16. {172}

In Flesberg: Knud Sjulsen Grøslie, 22. {173}

Notes

<1> Henry J. Cadbury, "Four Immigrant Shiploads of 1836 and 1837," in Norwegian-American Studies and Records. 2: 21—52 (Northfield, Minnesota, 1927); C. A. Clausen, "An Immigrant Shipload of 1840," in Norwegian-American Studies and Records, 14: 54—77 (1944); the passengers aboard the "Johanna" in 1843 are listed in Clarence A. Clausen and Andreas Elviken, A Chronicle of Old Murkego, 227—232 (Northfield, Minnesota, 1951). The passengers aboard the "Restaurationen" in 1825 have been studied by a number of authors, notably by J. Hart Rosdail, The Sloopers, Their Ancestry and Posterity (Broadview, Illinois, 1961).

<2> For more detail, consult Gerhard B. Naeseth, Norwegian Settlements in the United States: A Review of Printed and Manuscript Sources for the Study of Norwegians in America (Salt Lake City, 1969).

<3> Carlton C. Qualey, Norwegian Settlement in the United States, 251 (Northfield, Minnesota, 1938).

<4> Nils William Olsson, Swedish Passenger Arrivals in New York, 1820—1850, 40—44 (Stockholm, 1967).

<5> New York Herald, April 22, 1842.

<6> New York Herald, July 31, 1845; Theodore C. Blegen, Land of Their Choice, 95—98 (Minneapolis, 1955); Norsk biografisk leksikon, 14:77—78 (Oslo, 1962); Joh. N. Tønnessen, Porsgrunns historie, 2: 261, 264 (Porsgrunn, 1957).

<7> Illinois Census Population Schedules: 1850," in the National Archives, Washington, D.C. There is a microfilm copy in the Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, Illinois, hereafter referred to as "Illinois Census." Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register; "Illinois Census: 1860"; Mrs. Burt T. Wheeler, La Salle County Genealogical Records Index (Evanston, Illinois, 1943-1959).

<8> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register.

<9> Blegen, Land of Their Choice, 97, 185; "Iowa Census: 1850"; "Illinois Census: 1860"; Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register.

<10> S. Ytterbøe, Holla, 1:401 (Oslo, 1925); Holla, Norway, Parish Register.

<11> H. H. Einung, Tinn soga, 2:301 (Rjukan, 1942); Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Andres A. Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn, Telemark til NordAmerika 1837—1850," a manuscript in the possession of the author. Svalestuen has also published Tinne emigrasjonhistorie, 1837—1907 (Oslo, 1968). Tombstone in East Wiota Lutheran cemetery; Parish Register of Wiota Norwegian Lutheran Church (earlier called Hamilton Settlement).

<12> Blegen, Land of Their Choice, 186; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in Springdale Lutheran cemetery.

<13> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<14> J. A. Schneider, Fra det gamle Skien, 3:284 (Skien, 1924); Blegen, Land of Their Choice, 188—191; George T. Flom, A History of Norwegian Immigration to the United States, 298 (Iowa City, Iowa, 1909); "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Pine Lake Lutheran Church Parish Register.

<15> Blegen, Land of Their Choice, 186.

<16> Vinje, Norway, Parish Register; "Parish Register of Koshkonong Lutheran Church; "Gamle Koshkonong og Stoughton, Wisconsin," in Telesoga, no. 13, p. 29 (September, 1912); Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 315.

<17> Vinje, Norway, Parish Register; "Gamle Koshkonong," in Telesoga, no. 13. p. 29; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 322.

<18> Seljord, Norway, Parish Register; tombstone in Norway Grove Lutheran cemetery, DeForest, Wisconsin.

<19> New York Herald, August 9, 1842; Theodore C. Blegen, Norwegian Migration to America, 1825—1860, 133 (Northfield, Minnesota, 1931).

<20> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 143; Halvor L. Skavlem, The Skavlem and Ødegaarden Families, 127 (np., 1915); tombstone in Luther Valley Lutheran cemetery; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<21> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<22> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 255; Nore, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Dane County, Wisconsin, Vital Records; tombstone in the East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery.

<23> The History of Stephenson County, Illinois, 764 (Chicago, 1899); Aarbog nr. 3 for Numedal, Kongsberg og omega lag, 36—39; Rollag, Norway, Parish Register.

<24> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Illinois Census: 1860"; The History of Stephenson County, Illinois, 764; Flom, Norwegian Immigration. 149.

<25> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register. Other emigrants from Rollag, mentioned below and not otherwise identified, are listed in this register.

<26> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 149; "Illinois Census: 1850."

<27> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register. Other emigrants from Sigdal, mentioned below and not otherwise identified, are listed in this register.

<28> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 216; Hallingen, 2:11 (October, 1912); tombstone in Union Prairie Lutheran cemetery, Decorah, Iowa; Nes, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<29> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in East Jefferson Prairie Lutheran cemetery.

<30> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<31> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; tombstone in Luther Valley Lutheran cemetery; Aarbog nr. 13 for Numedalsla get, 66—82; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Luther Valley Centennial, 1839—1939, 55—56 (np., 1939).

<32> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 278—279; "Gamle Koshkonong," in Telesoga, no. 13, p. 31; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Iowa Census: 1860"; tombstone in Saude Lutheran cemetery; Hjartdal, Norway, Parish Register.

<33> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; Andrea, Mørch, Sigdal og Eggedal, 3:840 (Drammen, 1954); tombstone in Jefferson Prairie Lutheran cemetery; "Wisconsin Census: 1860."

<34> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register.

<35> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 185; Aarbog nr. 1 for Numedalslaget, 91 (np., 1915).

<36> Hjartdal, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 120; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in Muskego Lutheran cemetery; Telesoga, no. 1, p.8 (1909).

<37> Hjartdal, Norway, Parish Register.

<38> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Einung, Tinn. saga, 2:650; Franklyn CurtissWedge, History of Fillmore County, Minnesota, 2:689, 1067 (Chicago, 1912); Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 278; Martin Ulvestad, Nordændene i Amerika. 2:797 (Minneapolis, 1913); Richard W. E. Perrin, "John Bergen’s Log House," in Wisconsin Magazine of History, 44:12—14 (Autumn, 1960); Telesoga, no. 20, p. 32 (July, 1914); "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn."

<39> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn."

<40> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Einung Tinn soga, 2:688.

<41> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Einung, Tinn soga, 2:499; Blegen, Land of Their Choice, 186; Theodore C. Blegen, ed., The Civil War Letters of Colonel Hans Christian Heg, 249—250 (Northfield. Minnesota, 1936); Rasmus B. Anderson, The First Chapter of Norwegian Immigration, 300—326 (Madison, Wisconsin, 1906); Telesoga, no. 7—8, p. 20 (March-May, 1911), no. 18, p. 18 (December, 1913); Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 163; Curtiss-Wedge, History of Fillmore County, 2:612; Racine County, Wisconsin, Vital Records; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstones in Greenfield Lutheran cemetery, Harmony, Minnesota.

<42> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 249—250; Einung, Tinn soga, 2:245; Telesoga, no. 13, p. 23, 33; History of Dane County, 3:798—800 (Madison, 1906); "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; tombstone in West Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery.

<43> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Einung, Tinn saga, 2:192.

<44> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Einung, Tinn soga, 2:670; Telesoga, no. 18, p. 21.

<45> Blegen, Land of Their Choice, 186; Einung, Tinn saga, 2:688; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; tombstone in Lincoln Lutheran cemetery, Ridgeway, Iowa.

<46> Seljord, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860."

<47> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<48> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register.

<49> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Einung, Tinn soga, 2: 332; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Telesoga, no. 18, p. 19; "Illinois Census: 1850."

<50> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 314; Einung, Tinn soga, 2: 168; Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; tombstone in West St. Olaf Lutheran cemetery, Byron, Minnesota; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Minnesota Census: 1860."

<51> Curtiss-Wedge, History of Fillmore County, 939—941; Einung, Tints toga 2: 188; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Minnesota Census: 1860"; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Tinn, Norway, Parish Register.

<52> Curtiss-Wedge, History of Fillmore County, 845; Einung, Tinn soga, 2:623; Telesoga, no. 18, p. 18; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; tombstones in Greenfield Lutheran cemetery, Harmony, Minnesota; Tinn, Norway, Parish Register.

<53> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn."

<54> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 211—212; Plymouth Township Centennial, Rock County, Wisconsin, 70 (Orfordville, Wisconsin, 1948); "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstones in Luther Valley and West Primrose Lutheran cemeteries; Rock Prairie Lutheran Church Parish Register.

<55> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<56> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<57> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Rock Prairie Lutheran Church Parish Register.

<58> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in East Blue Mounds Lutheran cemetery.

<59> Telesoga, no. 18, p. 19; Tints, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tints"; Jefferson Prairie Lutheran Church Parish Register; "Illinois Census: 1850."

<60> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 185; E. Clifford Nelson and Eugene L. Fevold, The Lutheran Church Among Norwegian-Americans, 1:109, 113 (Minneapolis, 1960).

<61> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 323; Hjalmar R. Holand, Coon Valley, 252 (Minneapolis, 1928); Laardal, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<62> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; K. A. Rene, Historie om udvandringen fra Voss, 248 (Madison, Wisconsin, 1930); "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<63> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in cemetery of Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin; tombstone in East Blue Mounds Lutheran cemetery; Parish Register of Luther Valley Lutheran Church.

<64> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<65> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register of Rock Run Lutheran Church.

<66> Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<67> New York Herald, August 13, 1842.

<68> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; tombstone in East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 186.

<69> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Parish Register of Koshkonong Lutheran Church; Flom, Norwegian Imimigation, 186.

<70> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; tombstone in East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery; Dane County, Wisconsin, Vital Statistics.

<71> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<72> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; Parish Register of Luther Valley Lutheran Church.

<73> Nore. Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register of Koshkonong Lutheran Church.

<74> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<75> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 186.

<76> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; tombstone in Luther Valley Lutheran cemetery; Aarbog for Numedalslaget, 14:53—55.

<77> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<78> Nore, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 186, 317; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Dane County, Wisconsin, Vital Statistics.

<79> Nore, Norway. Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<80> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<81> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register.

<82> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<83> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; O. M. Norlie, Who’s Who Among Pastors in All the Norwegian Lutheran Synods of America, 224 (Minneapolis, 1928); Aarbog for Numedalslaget, 6: 104; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in Springfield Lutheran cemetery, Decorah, Iowa.

<84> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<85> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Syalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; Parish Register for Jefferson Prairie Lutheran Church; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 278—279; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<86> Kviteseid, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 322; Telesoga, no. 13, p. 29.

<87> Seljord, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 278—279; Telesoga, no. 13, p. 5, 30; tombstone in West Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery; Parish Register for Koshkonong Lutheran Church.

<88> Seljord, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<89> Kviteseid, Norway, Parish Register.

<90> Rauland, Norway, Parish Register.

<91> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; Mørch, Sigdal og Eggedal, 2:141.

<92> Boston Evening Transcript, August 12, 1842.

<93> Laardal, Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register for Koshkonong Lutheran Church; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 25 1—252.

<94> Kviteseid, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 188; Telesoga, no. 13, p. 29, and no. 14, p. 11 (December. 1912).

<95> Kviteseid, Norway, Parish Register.

<96> Vinje. Norway, Parish Registrar; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<97> Boston Evening Transcript, August 16, 1842.

<98> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register.

<99> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 338; tombstone in Bonnet Prairie Lutheran cemetery.

<100> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register of Wiota Lutheran Church.

<101> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register of Koshkonong Lutheran Church.

<102> Blegen, Norwegian Migration to America, 1825—1860, 120, 121, 127; New York Herald, August 18, 1842.

<103> Hjartdal, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<104> Kviteseid, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Parish Register of Jefferson Prairie Lutheran Church.

<105> Kongsberg, Norway, Parish Register; O. Rygh, Gaardnavne I Buskeruds fylke, 222 (Kristiania, 1909).

<106> Vinje, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 322; Telesoga, no. 1, p. 10, and no. 3, p. 2—11 (March, 1910); "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; records of the Norwegian Pioneer Association of the Town of Deerfield. deposited with the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

<107> Vinje, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 252—253; Telesoga, no. 20, p. 40 (July, 1914); "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<108> Vinje, Norway, Parish Register.

<109> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; Tov Flatin, Flesberg, 2:319 (Kristiania, 1923); "Illinois Census: 1850"; Parish Register of the Norwegian Lutheran Church at Leland, Illinois.

<110> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register.

<111> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 372; Mørch, Sigdal og Eggedal, 3:827, 1017; tombstone in Union Prairie Lutheran cemetery, Decorah, Iowa.

<112> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; Mørch, Sigdal og Eggedal, 2:660.

<113> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; Mørch, Sigdal og Eggedal, 3:930; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<114> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<115> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Mørch, Sigdal og Eggedal, 3:969.

<116> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register; Mørch, Sigdal og Eggedal, 3:923; Sigdalslagets Aarbog, 1949, 183; "Minnesota Census: 1860."

<117> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; Flatin, Flesberg, 2:354, 368, 370; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<118> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; Flatin, Flesberg, 2:380; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 325; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery.

<119> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; Flatin, Flesberg, 2: 226; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 186—187; tombstone in East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery.

<120> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; Flatin, Flesberg. 2:354; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; Dane County, Wisconsin, Vital Statistics; tombstone in East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery.

<121> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; Flom. Norwegian Immigration. 321: "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<122> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; tombstone in the Holden Lutheran Church cemetery, Mt. Morris, Wisconsin.

<123> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register.

<124> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 187, 261, 263; Cambridge (Wisconsin) News, March 5, 1909; Parish Register for Koshkonong Lutheran Church; tombstone in the East Koshkonong Lutheran Church cemetery.

<125> "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 202, 341.

<126> Hol, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 278—280; Lars Reinton, Folk og fortid i Hol, 2:774 (Oslo, 1943); "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in North Cape Lutheran cemetery; Racine County, Wisconsin, Vital Records.

<127> Hol, Norway, Parish Register.

<128> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; tombstone in East Jefferson Prairie Lutheran cemetery.

<129> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register.

<130> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; tombstone in Grace Lutheran cemetery, Winchester, Wisconsin; Grace Lutheran Church of Winchester, Wisconsin, One Hundredth Anniversary, 8 (Neenah, Wisconsin, 1950).

<131> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; tombstone in Luther Valley Lutheran cemetery; Herbjørn H. Strøm, Ældre og yngre slegter fra Tunhovdbygden, 110 (Hillsboro, North Dakota, 1916); Aarbog for Numedalslaget, 1: 36, 2: 12.

<132> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register.

<133> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; "Illinois Census: 1860"; tombstone in Rock Run Lutheran cemetery; Aarbog for Numedalslaget, 2: 19; The History of Stephenson County, Illinois, 736 (Chicago, 1880)

<134> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register for Luther Valley Lutheran Church.

<135> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register for Rock Run Lutheran Church.

<136> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Parish Register for Rock Run Lutheran Church; "Illinois Census: 1860."

<137> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register.

<138> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; Dane County, Wisconsin, Vital Records: tombstone in East Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery; Parish Register for Koshkonong Lutheran Church.

<139> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Aarbog for Numedalslaget, 4: 80; "Wisconsin Census: 1860."

<140> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register; Skavlem, The Skavlem and Ødegaarden Families, 85; "Wisconsin Census: 1860."

<141> Hol, Norway, Parish Register.

<142> Leir, Norway, Parish Register; Rolf Fladby, Liers historie, 2:21 (Drammen, 1963); David T. Nelson, The Diary of Elisabeth Koran, 96—99 (Northfield, Minnesota, 1955); G. J. Lomen, Genealogies of the Lomen-Ringstad-Brandt and Joys Families, 129 (Northfield, Minnesota, 1929); tombstone in Washington Prairie Lutheran cemetery; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; "Iowa Census: 1860."

<143> New York Herald, August 20, 1842.

<144> Vinje, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 243, 252, 319; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<145> New York Herald, September 6, 1842.

<146> Seljord, Norway, Parish Register; "Illinois Census: 1850"; Parish Register for Long Prairie Lutheran Church.

<147> Kviteseid, Norway, Parish Register; Torjus Loupedalen, Kviteseid bygdesoge, 1:515 (Kragerø, 1956); Telesoga, no. 10, p. 8 (December, 1911).

<148> Kviteseid, Norway, Parish Register.

<149> Laardal, Norway, Parish Register.

<150> Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 319.

<151> Tinn, Norway, Parish Register; Einung, Tinn soga, 2:57; Carl M. Gunderson, A History of Crow River Lutheran Church, Belgrade, Minnesota, 5—6, 148 (np., 1961?); Svalestuen, "Emigranter fra Tinn"; "Wisconsin Census: 1850"; Dane County, Wisconsin, Vital Records.

<152> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register.

<153> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register; "Illinois Census: 1850."

<154> Seljord, Norway, Parish Register; Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 324; Telesoga, no. 13, p. 31.

<155> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1850."

<156> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register.

<157> Laardal, Norway, Parish Register.

<158> Fyresdal, Norway, Parish Register; "Illinois Census: 1850"; Parish Register of Long Prairie Lutheran Church.

<159> Holla, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; tombstone in Oak Grove cemetery, Whitewater, Wisconsin; Whitewater Register, November 18, 1910.

<160> Seljord, Norway, Parish Register; "Wisconsin Census: 18.50"; "Wisconsin Census: 1860"; Parish Register for Luther Valley Lutheran Church.

<161> Nordre Land, Norway, Parish Register; Landings-bogen, 274 (Decorah, Iowa, 1924); "Emigrants from Land Parish, Norway, 1839—1850," by Arvid Sandaker, a manuscript in the possession of the author.

<162> Flom, Norwegian Immigration, 323; History of Dane County, 3:283—284 (Madison, 1906) ; tombstone in West Koshkonong Lutheran cemetery.

<163> Gransherred, Norway, Parish Register.

<164> Rauland, Norway, Parish Register.

<165> Rollag, Norway, Parish Register.

<166> Mo, Norway, Parish Register.

<167> Nore, Norway, Parish Register.

<168> Laardal, Norway, Parish Register.

<169> Øystre Slidre, Norway, Parish Register.

<170> Modum, Norway, Parish Register.

<171> Sigdal, Norway, Parish Register.

<172> Hjartdal, Norway, Parish Register.

<173> Flesberg, Norway, Parish Register.


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