Emigrants with University Training
by Oystein Ore (Volume 19: Page 160)
Among the hundreds of thousands of Norwegian emigrants to
America in the nineteenth century there were extremely few
who had the benefit of university training in their homeland.
The most obvious reason is that university students constituted
a very small percentage of the population. More over, with
a few exceptions they came from families with long traditions
of higher education and public service. They saw small chance
of finding suitable openings in the New World. In addition,
through most of this time the professional class was dominated
by a strong feeling of patriotism which looked askance at
emigration as akin to treason. Some came from the wealthier
and more influential families in which there was no strong
pressure to seek better economic conditions. But a few did
come, and they were important be cause many of them became
leaders in their American communities.
With the rise of Norwegian pioneer communities in the West,
the need for trained professional men became urgent; specifically,
there was an immediate demand for ministers and medical men
who could speak to the immigrants in their own tongue. Some
settlements succeeded by direct approach in inducing a number
of graduates in theology and medicine from the Royal Fredrik
University at Christiania to come to the assistance of their
troubled countrymen. Many of these men came solely from a
strong sense of duty; others were influenced by the lack of
suitable openings in Norway during certain periods, by hopes
for richer rewards in a new country,  or simply by a
spirit of adventure. Undoubtedly there were also a few who
were failures or misfits and sought refuge far away from the
It might be of interest to enumerate this special little group
of Norwegian emigrants, up to and including those who took
the entrance examination for the university in 1880. Available
as source material are the extensive published lists of Norwegian
students; for example, P. Botten-Hansen, Norske studenter
der har absolvert examen artium ved Christiania Universitet
eller de artiums-berettigede skoler (Norwegian Students Who
Have Passed the Artium Examinations at the University in Christiania
or at Other Schools Authorized to Give Artium - Christiania,
1893). Much more detailed are the yearbooks published for
each graduating class at its twenty-fifth or fiftieth reunion,
but unfortunately they do not cover the first half century
of the existence of the Royal Fredrik University. For obvious
reasons these yearbooks do not always furnish the year of
the graduate’s death; thus on this point our information is
often deficient. The choice of the year 1880 as a terminating
point for this list is purely arbitrary; it could easily have
been continued to the present time through a study of the
The names in the list that follows are arranged according
to the year in which the eksamen artium, or simply artium,
was taken. This degree was and still is the entrance requirement
to the university. Since the university has somewhat more
of the character of a graduate school than has an American
college, the artium degree lies on a fairly high level, corresponding
roughly to a junior college certificate.
So far as it is available in our sources, the following information
about each candidate will be furnished: Name, dates of birth
and death, location of the gymnasium from which he came, highest
university degree obtained, and the year in which it was granted.
Most of the degrees were taken in theology, medicine, and
law, with a few instances, among  the later candidates,
of science and philology. Many proceeded no farther than the
eksamen philosophicum or annen eksamen, the second examination,
a more general introductory degree for which the requirements
could be satisfied in a year, or, at most, two. In each instance
this degree has been indicated by the figure 2. Incidentally,
it is remarkable how few in this emigrant group took no degree
whatever beyond artium.
It seems impossible to establish any hard and fast rule as
to which names should be mentioned. Many ministers and doctors
came to America, to serve only a couple of years be fore returning
to Norway. For the most part, only those who came to stay,
or whose life work fell mainly in this country, have been
included. There are a couple of instances of Norwegian professional
men who decided to retire in the United States. This happened
with EVEN MEIDAL SCHJELDERUP CORMONTAN (1798-1893), whose
class entered in 1817-the earliest class on record that sent
a member to America. Cormontan spent a long life in the service
of the Norwegian church and it was not until 1887, when he
was eighty-nine, that he left for America to spend his remaining
years with his children, who had emigrated earlier.
STUDENTS OR GRADUATES WHO MIGRATED
RYNNING, OLE (1809-38), 2. He was born in Ringsaker, where
his father was a pastor. He spent some time at the university,
but did not become a minister, as his father had hoped. He
taught school for several years and left for America in 1837.
He helped found the ill-fated Beaver Creek settlement in Illinois
and died there from “swamp fever” (malaria). His little book
Sand færdig beretning om Amerika (True Account of America)
exerted a tremendous influence on Norwegian immigration. An
English version translated and edited by Theodore C. Blegen,
entitled Ole Rynning’s True Account of America, was published
in Minneapolis in 1926. 
SCHUBART, SØREN ANDREAS HAGERUP (b. 1812), 2. He emigrated
about 1850, after having been a clerk in the department of
finance and an entertainer at the Klingenberg variety theater
LUND, NICOLAI (1814-47), Drammen, 2. He was a botanist and
died in Venezuela.
REIERSEN, JOHAN REINERT (1810-64). He was born in Vestre
Moland, near Kristiansand, where his father was a sexton.
For some years he led a roving life, until 1839, when he founded
Christiansandsposten; it soon became known throughout Norway
as an agrarian and proemigration organ. During 1843 he was
in America studying conditions there and on his return he
published his Veiviser for norske emigranter (Guide for Norwegian
Emigrants-Christiania, 1844). In 1845 he led a party of ten
emigrants to Texas, where he founded a settlement called “Normandy.”
From there Reiersen sent many enticing letters to Norwegian
newspapers, but the Texas settlement did not attract many
STUWITZ, PETER (1806-42), Bergen, theology, 1837. He died
at St. John’s, Newfoundland, while on a zoological expedition.
CLAUSEN, FRITZ CHRISTIAN (1810-70), theology, 1845. He was
born in Trondheim, the son of a merchant. He was a teacher
in Skien until he emigrated in 1857. He served as a pastor
in Spring Grove, Minnesota, and Big Canoe, Iowa, until his
death. It is reported that for a time he served thirteen other
PREUS, ADOLF CARL (1814-78). He was a pastor in Wisconsin,
1850-72, and first president of the Norwegian Synod. He re
turned to Norway in 1872.
VOGT, NIELS (1814-41), 2. He is reported to have died in
FLEISCHER, FREDERICK CHRISTIAN (1821-78), law, 1844. He 
took part in various unsuccessful business ventures before
emigrating to California in 1852 to mine gold. Later he was
a sailor on the Great Lakes, taught school in Wisconsin, and
then turned to journalism, first as assistant editor of Emigranten
(Inmansville and Madison, Wisconsin), and then as cofounder
of Fædrelandet in La Crosse in 1864.
HEGGE, CHRISTIAN THORBERG (b. 1824), law, 1849. He served
as a soldier in the United States.
STUB, HANS ANDREAS (1822-1907), theology, 1846. He was born
in Fusa, near Bergen, the son of a minister. He emigrated
in 1848 and served as a pastor, first at Muskego and later
at Coon Prairie, Wisconsin. In 1853 Stub and six other ministers,
C. L. Clausen, A. C. Preus, H. A. Preus, G. F. Dietrichson,
J. A. Ottesen, and R. D. Brandt organized the Norwegian Evangelical
Lutheran Church of America, usually known as the Norwegian
Synod. Two years earlier Stub, A. C. Preus, and Clausen had
founded the periodical Maanedstidende (Monthly Tidings- Racine,
Wisconsin), which became the organ of the Synod. Stub later
served parishes in Big Canoe and Hesper in Iowa, interrupted
by an interval when he served several parishes in Nor way
and later in the Inner Mission there. During his last years
he lived as pastor emeritus at Sacred Heart, Minnesota.
THRANE, MARCUS MØLLER (1817-91). He was a famous Norwegian
labor leader. As a young man he traveled in France and Switzerland,
where he became acquainted with pre-Marxian socialism. He
first studied theology, then tried teaching, but en countered
opposition because of his radical ideas. During and after
the revolutionary year 1848 in Norway he took a lively part
in newspaper discussions and began organizing unions among
laborers and cotters. As a result he was condemned in 1851
to four years’ imprisonment. He emigrated to the United States
in 1863 and was for many years connected with several radical
Chicago papers: Den norske amerikaner, Dagslyset, and Den
POPPE, ULRICH FREDERICH MATHIAS (b. 1820), medicine, 1848.
He was a physician in Wisconsin. 
PREUS, HERMAN AMBERG (1825-94), theology, 1848. He was first
a teacher before being called as pastor to Spring Prairie,
Wisconsin, in 1851. He retained this position for more than
forty years, but his activities were by no means limited to
his parish. He helped organize the Norwegian Synod in 1852-53
and was its president during the “critical generation” from
18692 to 1894. He took an active part in the educational work
of the Synod, and was first editor, then co-editor of Kirkelig
maanedstidende (Madison and Decorah), 1859-68, and was a prolific
contributor to church publications throughout his life. During
1866-67 he visited Norway, where he delivered a series of
lectures about religious and social conditions in the Norwegian-American
settlements. Preus was a kindly, strong, and stern man. “We
must rejoice when we are condemned as being hard-hearted,
intolerant, and un-Christian,” he declared.
BRANDT, NILS OLSEN (1824-1921), theology, 1849. He was born
in Vestre Slidre, Valdres, and emigrated in 1851 when he accepted
a call near Watertown, Wisconsin. Brandt was one of the founders
of the Norwegian Synod and was its vice-president, 1857-71.
From 1865 to 18892 he taught at Luther College and was a pastor
in Decorah and neighboring congregations. Brandt did extensive
mission work, walking countless miles through Wisconsin, Iowa,
and Minnesota, and organizing congregations.
JENSEN, NIELS EDVARD SCHANKE (1824-75), theology, 1858. He
emigrated in 1859 and served congregations in Rushford and
Winona in Minnesota.
KOREN, ULRIK VILHELM (1826-1910), Bergen, theology, 1852.
He emigrated in 1853 to serve parishes in northeastern Iowa.
He soon became a power within the Norwegian Synod, acting
successively as secretary, vice-president, president of the
Iowa district, and president, 1894-1910. He took part in the
great de bates about the common school, slavery, and predestination.
“Koren was urbane and scholarly, a church statesman, the chief
literary defender and expounder of the Synod’s aims and ideals.”
His wife, Elisabeth, was a woman of culture. Her book of 
memoirs, Fra pioneertiden (Decorah, Iowa, 1914), gives an
intimate account of a pioneer Norwegian-American parsonage.
It has been recently translated by David T. Nelson (The Diary
of Elisabeth Koren, 1853-1855-Northfield, 1955).
OTTESEN, JAKOB AALL (1825-1904), theology, 1849. He was born
in Nedre Romerike, and taught school in Christiania for a
time before emigrating in 1852. He was pastor in parishes
in Manitowoc and Koshkonong in Wisconsin and in Decorah, Iowa.
He was one of the founders of the Synod and played a prominent
part in its affairs. He was associate editor of Kirkelig maaneds
tidende (Madison and Decorah), 1861-68. He was a man of simple
piety, humanistic tastes, and keen humor; and he has been
described as a “tenacious controversialist and grimly purposeful
SCHRØDER, JOHAN CHRISTOFFER HANS (b. 1824), 2. He
was a founder, with Frederick Fleischer, of Fædrelandet
(La Crosse, Wisconsin) in 1864. He took an active part in
STEEN, LAURITZ (b. 1820), theology. He left for America in
1861 and served in parishes at Rock Dell, Harrison, and St.
Olaf (Olmsted County), Minnesota.
HJORT, OVE JACOB (1827-79), 2. He was born in Christiania,
emigrated to the United States in 1861, and received a degree
in theology at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, the following
year. For the rest of his life he was a pastor at the Paint
Creek parish near Waterville, Iowa.
HUSHER (HUSCHER), FREDERICK ANTON ODIN CHRISTIAN (1825- 94),
theology, 1850. He was born in Viborg, Denmark, but his parents
moved to Norway when he was three years old. He was a teacher
and school principal until he was appointed minister in Nissedal,
1864. He left for America in 1869 and became a newspaper man
with Fædrelandet og emigranten in La Crosse, Wisconsin.
In 1873 he became editor of Budstikken in Minneapolis, but
returned to Fædrelandet as editor in 1875. Later he
was editor of Normanden (Grand Forks, North Dakota). Husher
took an active part in politics and held various positions
of trust  with the Republican administrations, both in
Wisconsin and Minnesota. It has been said that “during his
time he stood in a more intimate relationship with his reading
public than probably any other Norwegian-American newspaperman.”
MUUS, BERNT JULIUS INGEBRETSEN (1832-1900), Trondheim, theology,
1854. He taught school for a couple of years and then became
editor of the important periodical Norsk kirketidende. In
1859 he emigrated and became pastor of Holden parish in Goodhue
County, Minnesota. In the early days he served a total of
twenty-eight parishes, covering an area as large as Denmark.
In 1869 he announced that he would start an academy in connection
with his church at Holden. By 1874 this project had expanded
into St. Olaf’s School (later St. Olaf College), which in
that year opened its doors at Northfield, Minnesota.
LARSEN, PETER LAURENTIUS (1833-1915), Kristiansand, theology,
1855. He emigrated to the United States in 1857. He was pastor
at Rush River, Wisconsin, 1857-59 and worked in a large area
of Wisconsin and Minnesota, but his main work was in the educational
field. He was professor at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis,
1859-61. When Luther College in Decorah, Iowa, was founded
in 1861 he became its president, a position he filled until
1902. He was vice-president of the Norwegian Synod, 1876-93,
and editor of Kirkelig maanedstidende (Decorah), 1868-74,
and of Evangelisk luthersk kirketidende (Decorah), 1874-89
and 1902-12. “None of the Norwegian university men of the
1850’s possessed greater ability or exercised a deeper influence
upon the Norwegian Americans than Larsen.” For a full account
see Karen Larsen, Laur. Larsen: Pioneer College President
SIEWERS, CARL LYDER (1830-1907), 2. He was born in Fredrikstad.
He taught in Christiania and then studied mathematics and
natural science in Germany. In 1863 he went to Luther College,
where he taught until 1877. He was editor of For hjemmet (Decorah),
1870-76, and of Decorah-posten, 1877-1907. 
GRØNVOLD, JUST CHRISTIAN (b. 1833), science, 1860.
He was born in Fron and taught mathematics for several years
before emigrating in 1865. He received a medical degree at
Humboldt Medical College, St. Louis, in 1869 and practiced
in Goodhue County, Minnesota. He wrote articles for various
medical journals and served on the Minnesota state board of
MAGELSSEN, CLAUS FRIMANN (1830-1904), theology, 1857. He
emigrated in 1859 and served several parishes in Wisconsin
SCHØYEN, DAVID MONRAD (1835-96), law, 1859. He was
born in Christiania. After several years of government service
he emigrated in 1867 and became a lawyer and publicist in
Chicago. He wrote for Skandinaven (Chicago) and Verdens gang
(Chicago). In the early 1890’s he moved to Stoughton, Wisconsin,
where he edited Nordmannen. Schøyen was the author
of several books, one a history of the United States.
LASSON, NIELS (1836-76), law. He died in New York.
ARNTZEN, SVEND (1834-80), law, 1858. He was a supreme court
lawyer. He emigrated in 1868.
FRICH, JORANNES BJERK (1835-1908), theology, 1862. During
1862-88 he was pastor in Halfway Creek and La Crosse, Wisconsin.
He was president of Luther Seminary in St. Paul and professor
of church history and homiletics, 1888-1902. He was editor
of Kirketidende (Racine, Wisconsin), 1889-95.
HANSTEEN, THORVALD CHRISTOFFER (b. 1834), law, 1860. He emigrated
in 1871 after practicing law at Hamar.
HIRSCH, EMIL KARENIUS CHRISTIAN (b. 1834), law, 1861. He
emigrated after practicing law in Christiania.
SØNNICHSEN, JENS PETER (1835-1910), law, 1863. He
emigrated in 1865 and received his medical degree at Ohio
College, Cincinnati, 1875, winning the faculty prize for the
best examination.  He was health officer in Cincinnati
and later practiced medicine in Minnesota. He returned to
Norway in 1902.
WANG, HARALD MARCUS (1837-1913). He was born in New York,
but returned to Norway with his parents. He first studied
medicine, then theology, before emigrating in 1874. He received
his theology degree at Augsburg Seminary (Minneapolis) the
same year and served various parishes in Wisconsin and the
ANDERSEN, TRULS ANDREAS (1836-67), Christiania, 2. He died
B.JØRN, LUDVIG MARINUS (1834-1908), theology, 1860.
He emigrated to the United States in 1861 and served parishes
in Wisconsin and Minnesota. He was secretary of the Synod,
1879-87, but broke with it during the controversy over predestination.
During 1890-94 he was vice-president of the United Norwegian
BØBERT, SØREN GEORG (1838-71), law, 1860. He
died in New York.
BOYE, PETER STYRR (1835-62), 92. He died in the Guianas.
WALLOE, JENS LINDAHL (1836-81), Drammen, medicine, 1862.
He was a physician at Coon Prairie, Wisconsin, in 1867.
GEELMUYDEN, SEBASTIAN THEODOR (b. 1837), theology, 1862.
He emigrated in 1867 and served several parishes in Wisconsin,
among them Milwaukee. He returned to Norway in 1881.
HVISTENDAHL, CHRISTIAN MATHIAS (1838-1918), theology, 1862.
He was ordained in the Norwegian Synod in 1864, and served
in Muskego and Stoughton, Wisconsin, and in San Francisco.
He returned to Norway in 1881.
WILSE, JOHAN FREDERIK (1837-1903). He was first a farm manager,
then an accountant for the Sierra Lumber Company, Sierra Bay,
MICHELET, NIELS CHRISTIAN (1837-1920), law, 1861. He was
 born in Fredrikshald and emigrated in 1866. He worked
for some time for Emigranten (Madison), and graduated from
the University of Wisconsin law school in 1871. He held various
govern mental positions until he moved to Minneapolis in 1882
to practice law. He was interested in art and literature and
was a member of the board of a Norwegian art society in Minneapolis.
HANSEN, JACOB VICTOR (1840-71), Trondheim, law, 1863. He
died at Four-mile Prairie, Texas.
BENDEKE, CARL OSCAR (1841-1906), 2. He was born in Christiania
and studied medicine until he became a surgeon on an emigrant
vessel. He practiced medicine briefly in Chicago and elsewhere
until he settled in Minneapolis in 1875. He studied eye and
ear diseases in the United States and several European countries
and was considered one of the leading Scandinavian physicians
of the Northwest.
HVOSLEF, JOHAN CHRISTIAN (1839-1920). He was born in Søndfjord.
In the United States he studied at Rush Medical College, and
then practiced medicine at Lanesboro, Minnesota. He was an
international expert on botany, and a plant he discovered
near Lanesboro is named for him.
JANSON, KRISTOFER NAGEL (1841-1917), theology, 1865. He was
born in Bergen, where his father, a merchant, was American
consul. He traveled extensively in Europe and upon his return
to Norway became popular as a teacher and author. In 1881
he was ordained a Unitarian minister in Boston, and for a
time he served a Norwegian Unitarian church at Hanska, Minnesota.
He re turned to Norway in 1893.
NORGRENN, HANS AUGUST THEODOR (1840-81), 2. He died in Minneapolis.
TUFTE, OLE PETER (b. 1838), Skien, theology, 1866. He emigrated
after having been a chaplain in Asker.
CARLSEN, LAURITZ ANNÆUS KRAFT (1842-1913), theology,
1868. He emigrated to the United States in 1871 and served
 parishes in Minnesota, Montana, and Idaho. During 1879-91
he was in charge of churches in Australia, New Zealand, and
Hawaii, and later he was Seamen’s Pastor in San Francisco.
“Pastor Carlsen possessed all the traits which make a man
a pioneer in his life work. His courage and self-sacrifice
knew no bounds and his ability to win the confidence, especially
of sea men, was unique.”
HOLMBOE, EVEN MARENUS (1842-1922), Trondheim, 2. He was born
in Tromsø and studied at the institute of agriculture
in Aas. He worked as an agronomist in various districts in
Norway until he became superintendent of Bodsfengslet (the
penitentiary) in Christiania in 1873. He emigrated in 1883.
He was a parochial-school teacher in Iowa and Minnesota, later
a photographer in Salem, North Dakota, and finally a gardener
for the Sonoma Company, Santa Rosa, California. He was described
as an unusual personality, interested in social problems.
DAAE, IVER MUNTHE (b. 1881). He was a businessman in Chicago.
KOREN, HANS JACOB GRØGAARD (1842-99), medicine, 1869.
He was a physician in Norway and the United States.
MAGELSSEN, JACOB WRIGHT (1843-1931), 2. He emigrated to America
in 1863, and received a degree from Rush Medical College in
1866. After practicing at Koshkonong, Wisconsin, he moved
to Rushford, Minnesota, in 1875, where he practiced until
his death. He was a highly respected man in his community
and held many positions of trust.
MOE, PEDER MARCUS ADOLPH (1842-77), Christiania, 2. He died
in Chicago while a medical student.
HØEGH, KNUT ØRN (1844-1925), Trondheim, medicine,
1869. He emigrated to the United States immediately after
receiving his degree; he practiced in La Crosse, and, after
1887, in Minneapolis. He was prominent in the medical profession
in Minnesota and a member of the state board of health. He
contributed extensively to Norwegian-American publications.
OFFEDAL, SVEN (1844-1911), Stavanger, theology, 1871. This
well-known educator and church leader emigrated to the United
States in 1873 and became professor of church history and
exegesis at Augsburg Seminary in Minneapolis. He took part
in the violent theological disputes that shook Norwegian-American
society and was particularly acid in his criticisms of the
Norwegian Synod and its president, H. A. Preus. He was, with
Professor Georg Sverdrup, the leading spirit in the Conference
of the Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
and its daughter organization, the Lutheran Free Church.
SMITH, AXEL CHRISTIAN ROSENKRANTZ (1844-1917), medicine,
1869. He was born in Stavanger, emigrated in 1874, and practiced
medicine in Decorah, Iowa, and Scandinavia, Wisconsin.
DIETRICHSON, PETER GABRIEL (1844-91), Kristiansand, law,
1870. He was editor of Skandinaven (Chicago).
HARMENS, JOHAN CORDT (1845-78), Bergen, theology, 1870. He
was a minister in La Crosse.
KROG, HANS JACOB GRØGAARD (1845-1904). He was born
in Flekkefjord and emigrated in 1872 after teaching school
a few years. He received his theology degree from Concordia
Seminary, St. Louis, in 1874. He was a pastor for various
congregations except during 1890-96, when he taught Latin
and Norwegian at Luther College in Decorah, Iowa.
OLSEN, JOHAN (1844-1911), 2. He studied theology for two
years before emigrating in 1866. He taught at Augsburg Semi
nary in Minneapolis and later served congregations in Wisconsin
and Iowa. He became vice-president and president of the Conference
of the Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church; he published
a collection of poems and numerous articles in church organs.
RYNNING, THEOPHILUS BENJAMIN (b. 1844), 2. He became a farmer
HOLTERMANN, NIELS SCHULTZ (1845-96), Trondheim, 2. He was
a physician in Glenwood, Minnesota. 
MOGSTAD, PETER THOMS BUSCHMANN (1845-83), 2. He interrupted
his medical studies to become a surgeon on the emigrant ship
“Høvding” from Tønsberg to New Zealand in 1868.
He emigrated to America in 1872 and obtained his degree at
Rush Medical College. He later practiced in Chicago.
SIQUELAND, TJIORVALD OLUF (1847-81), Stavanger, medicine,
1869. He emigrated in 1871 and practiced in Manistee, Michigan.
He died there from typhoid.
STOLZ, CHRISTIAN (b. 1845), theology, 1874. He emigrated
in 1875, and was a minister in the United States. He returned
to Norway about 1890.
BU, OLE AMUNDSEN (1842-1921), theology, 1874. He was born
in Gudbrandsdalen and emigrated in 1875. He served a number
of parishes in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota, and
held positions of trust in Norwegian-American church bodies.
He published many poems and articles.
DÆHLEN, OLE OLSEN (b. 1840), 2. He was born in Hadeland
and emigrated to America in 1870. He received his theology
degree from Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, in 1872. He served
various congregations in Wisconsin until he took up farming
in West Virginia in 1888.
DAHL, THYGE THORSEN (1847-82), 2. He died in Oregon.
MELLBY, OLE (1843-1917), Christiania, theology, 1871. He
emigrated in 1872 and served various parishes in Minnesota,
among them New Richland. He was an important figure, first
in the Norwegian Synod, and later in the United Church, and
was for several years a member of the board of St. Olaf College
MUSÆUS, JOHAN CARL AUGUST (1843-1931), theology, 1873.
He was a minister at Scandinavia, Wisconsin, from 1875 until
his return to Norway in 1895.
SCHUMANN, DANIEL CORNELIUS (b. 1846), Bergen, medicine. He
practiced in Willmar, Minnesota.
SVERDRUP, GEORG (1848-1907), theology, 1871. He was born
in Balestrand, and after receiving his degree studied Semitic
 languages in Paris, 1871-73. In 1874 he was appointed
professor of dogmatics and exegesis at Augsburg Seminary in
Minneapolis; from 1876 to his death he was president of Augsburg.
He was president of the Lutheran Free Church, 1894-97. Andreas
Helland has written a biography of Georg Sverdrup, and has
edited a six-volume edition of his writings.
TIDEMAND, NICOLAI FERDINAND (b. 1846), medicine, 1876. He
was a physician in Montevideo in 1885.
HANDE, HALVARD HALVORSEN (1846-87), Christiania, theology,
1871. He was born in Valdres; in 18792 he was called to Estherville,
Iowa, as pastor. In 1874 he became editor of Norden (Chicago),
a position he held until his death. “Hande was an unusually
talented man with great journalistic ability. He made himself
especially felt as a keen polemicist, a gift which, under
Norwegian-American press conditions, has had rich opportunities
HJORTH, JULIUS HARTVIG FERDINAND (b. 1846), law, 1878. He
was a businessman in Bergen and then emigrated.
OFTEDAL, GUSTAV MARCILIUS (1846-1919), law, 18792. He was
born in Stavanger. He joined his brother Sven in the United
States, and in 1877 took a theology degree at Augsburg Semi
nary in Minneapolis. He served parishes in North Dakota and
RASCH, FERDINAND CHARLES (1848-80), Christiania, law, 1878.
He spent some years in Martinique, completed his law studies
in Norway, and then emigrated to the United States. He died
in New York.
ROSENBERG, HANS JUUL (1848-1904), 2. He studied law for a
while before emigrating in 1870. He bought land on Long Island
and developed a large poultry farm.
SÆTHER, NIELS FERDINAND ROLSDORPH (1846-83). A pharmacist,
he died in New York.
THAMS, TØNNES ANTON (1848-1912), Christiania, medicine,
1873. He was born at Sem and practiced medicine in Norway
until he emigrated in 1884. He first practiced in Minneapolis
and  later moved to Fargo, North Dakota. He was one of
the organizers of a Norwegian art society in Minneapolis.
ARCTANDER, CARL JOHAN LUDVIG WILHELM AUGUST (1849- 1920),
Skien, 2. He was born in Stockholm; in 1853 his father became
principal of the Latin School in Skien. In young Arctander’s
student days he was a liberal journalist associated with Norsk
folkeblad. In 1870 he left for Chicago to work on the paper
Fremad; later he was on the staff of Nordisk folkeblad in
Minneapolis. He studied law at the same time and became a
very successful lawyer. He was interested in art and literature.
He wrote extensively, translated Ibsen, and was a popular
public lecturer. His last years were spent in Seattle.
BØCKMAN, MARCUS OLAUS (1849-1942), Christiania, theology,
1874. He was born in Langesund. He served parishes near Kenyon,
Minnesota, until 1880, when he became a professor at the theological
seminary of the Anti-Missourian Brotherhood at Northfield.
During 1890-93 he taught at Augsburg Seminary in Minneapolis;
he became president of the United Church Semi nary, then at
Augsburg, in 1893. After the big church union in 1917 he was
president of Luther Theological Seminary in St. Paul.
BOECKMANN, EDVARD (1849-1927), medicine, 1874. He was born
in Østre Toten. He studied ophthalmology at several
European universities and received his medical degree in Christiania
in 1882. He served at hospitals in Bergen until he emigrated
in 1886. He was connected with hospitals in St. Paul and Minneapolis,
and became famous as an eye specialist, winning many honors
in his field. He contributed extensively to medical journals.
BOYESEN, HJALMAR HJORTH (1848-95), Christiania, 2. He was
born in Fredricksvern and studied in Leipzig before coming
to the United States in 1869. He was editor of the weekly
Fremad in Chicago and later devoted himself to teaching and
literary work. His novels and short stories are well known.
He taught classics at Urbana (Ohio) University, 1870-72, then
German and Scandinavian languages at Cornell University. In
1880 he  became Gebhard professor in the same subjects
at Columbia University.
HALVORSEN, HALVOR (1845-1921), theology, 1871. He was born
in Stavanger. He served a number of congregations in Wisconsin,
among them Coon Prairie. He was secretary of the Synod, 1887-96,
and was a frequent contributor to Synod publications.
LARSEN, LUDVIG ADOLPH CHRISTIAN (b. 1847), Stavanger, law,
1872. He came to the United States some time during the 1880’s
and was employed in the Union Bank in Chicago.
STADSTAD, ANDERS IVERSEN (b. 1840), theology, 1874. He was
born in Hedemarken and emigrated to the United States in 1876.
He served parishes in Douglas County, Minnesota, until 1887,
when he engaged in farming near Sisseton, South Dakota.
BEHRENS (Berentsen), BERENT MARTIN (1843-1912), medicine,
1875. He was born in Bergen. He studied otolaryngology in
Berlin and Vienna after graduation. He settled in Chicago
in 1882, and there helped found the Scandinavian-American
Medical Society. Behrens was “a man of wide knowledge and
of many interests in art and music.” He moved to Minneapolis
in 1895 and later returned to Bergen.
CHRISTOFFERSEN, EMANUAL (1849-1909), Drammen, theology, 1873.
He served as pastor at Pigeon Falls, Wisconsin, from 1876
until his death.
HOFF, CARL LUDVIG (1849-95), Skien. He obtained his degree
in theology at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis in 1875. After
having served the Bergen and Carver parishes near Glencoe,
Minnesota, he became an office clerk in St. Paul.
LOSSIUS, OLE MAURITZ (1850-98), Kristiansund, medicine, 1877.
He practiced medicine in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and Christine,
LOUS (Laws), FREDERIK FALKENBERG (b. 1849), Bergen, 2. He
studied medicine until he left for the United States in 1873,
and completed his studies at Chicago Medical College. He practiced
in Stoughton, Wisconsin, and moved to Minneapolis in 1886.
He  was an instructor in medicine and one of the founders
of the Norwegian Deaconesses’ Home.
PREUS, ISACH LEVIN (b. 1849), was born in Stavanger. He studied
theology until he left for the United States in 1870. He received
his degree from Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, in 1873. He
served churches in St. Louis; Chicago; Eau Claire, Wisconsin;
San Francisco and Oakland; and in New Jersey.
SKATTEBOL, OLAF LARSEN (b. 1847), Christiania, theology,
1876. He was born in Aal, Hallingdal, and served as pastor
in Aal and Gol, as well as Borge and Lofoten, before leaving
for the United States in 1888. His parishes included Blue
Earth, Minnesota; Lawrenceburg, Tennessee; Merrill, Wisconsin;
Walcott, North Dakota; and Parkland-Tacoma, Washington. For
a time he was a teacher at Columbia Lutheran College in Everett,
Washington. He published numerous articles and championed
the temperance movement in the papers Reform (Eau Claire,
Wisconsin). and Amerika (Chicago and Madison).
TROEN, PETER AUGUST WILHELM (1840-1903), 2. He practiced
medicine in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and La Crosse, Wisconsin,
as well as in Florence, Oregon. He also took part in various
DAAE, (Doe), ANDERS (b. 1852), Skien, medicine, 1878. He
was born in Fjeld. In 1880 he settled in Chicago, where he
became prominent in Norwegian-American circles. He served
on the staff of the Norwegian Hospital. In 1889 he studied
in Berlin and Vienna. He wrote plays and poems and was deeply
interested in music. For a number of years he served as correspondent
for Aftenposten (Christiania). In 1906 he was official leader
of the deputation from Det Norske Nationalforbund (Norwegian
National League) at the coronation of King Haakon VII.
HEIBERG, CHRISTEN FAYE (1850-1936). He was born in Bergen
and came to the United States in 1882. He first served on
the staff of Folkebladet (Minneapolis). When the Minneapolis
Public Library was organized in 1889, he became head of the
document and periodical departments, a position he held until
his retirement in 1922. 
HETTLESÆTER, CHRISTIAN HENRIK (1851-1915), Christiania,
2. He studied at the polytechnic institute in Aachen, Germany,
and held various positions as instructor and engineer in Norway.
He came to America in 1887 and first worked for various railroad
companies. From 18992 he was a consulting engineer, specializing
in bridge construction.
HOFFLUND, DANIEL (1850-1922), Trondheim. He emigrated in
18792. He was the first music teacher in Goodhue County, Minnesota.
Later he was employed in the county clerk’s office at Superior,
Wisconsin, and from 1891-93 he was clerk of the circuit court.
MAGELSSEN, MELCHIOR TSCHUDI (18592-95), Bergen, medicine,
1879. He was born in Christiania and emigrated to the United
States in 1881. He practiced medicine in Albert Lea and Fergus
MEJER, BALTHAZAR JOHAN (1850-1919), Christiania, medicine,
1877. He was born in Brevik; after serving as district doctor
in Biri and surgeon in the Norwegian navy he emigrated to
Chicago, where he practiced medicine until his death. He was
one of the founders of the Scandinavian-American Medical Society,
and served as president of the organization in 1897.
OLSEN, CHRISTIAN FREDRIK MARTINUS (b. 1849), Christiania,
2. He was a lecturer and poet; he emigrated to New York in
SÆTHREN, JOHAN CHRISTIAN (1849-81), Christiania, theology,
1875. He died while minister of the Seamen’s Church, Pensacola,
BREDA, OLAUS JENSEN (1853-1916), Christiania, 2. He was born
in Horten. He emigrated to the United States in 1871 and studied
at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis. After serving as pastor
in St. Paul, he spent the years 1877-79 studying philology
at Scandinavian universities. He taught Latin and Norwegian
at Luther College in Decorah from 1879-82 and then returned
to Norway for further studies. In 1884 he went to the University
of Minnesota to fill the newly established professorship in
Scandinavian languages; in 1899 he returned to Norway.
CHRISTENSEN, CHRISTIAN (1852-1919), medicine, 1879. He was
 born in Grimstad and was a doctor in Bamle until he
left for the United States in 1888. He settled in La Crosse,
Wisconsin, where he joined the well-known doctors, A. Gundersen
and G. Smedal. He became a fellow in the American College
of Surgeons in 1918.
JAEGER, NIELS WINTHER LUTH (1851-1925), Christiania, 2. He
was born near Arendal; he first did clerical work, then served
on the editorial staff of Norden (Chicago). Later he was editor
of Budstikken (Minneapolis). In 1886 he was the Democratic
candidate for secretary of state of Minnesota but was defeated.
He was later vice-president of a loan association. He eventually
was employed in the administrative offices of the University
MOE, MANUS FREDERIK HOLTERMAN (1851-93), Christiania, 2.
He emigrated in 1873. He was a librarian first in Chicago,
later in the Union Club in New York.
OMSTED, HANS (1852-82), Christiania, 2. He studied medicine
in Norway and later in the United States. He was practicing
in Denver at the time of his death.
SAHLGAARD, H. F. (1852-1913), law, 1880. He worked first
in Hypothekbanken (the mortgage bank) in Christiania, and
later practiced law until he left for the United States in
1887. He worked in a bank in St. Paul; later he became the
Swedish vice-consul in Denver.
SARTZ, RICHARD SOPHUS NIELSEN (1852-1920), law, 1873. He
practiced law in Norway for a few years and came to the United
States in 1879, spending several years in Philadelphia and
New York in the shipping business. He became editor of Minneapolis
tidende in 1887, and later editor of Norden (Chicago); finally
he served for twenty-two years as a translator with the Department
of Agriculture in Washington, D.C.
SMITH, HANS CAPPELEN (b. 1860), law, 1879. He practiced law,
first in Trondheim, then in Chicago.
STEINEGER, LEONHARD HESS (1851-1943), law, 1875. He came
to the United States in 1881 and was connected with the Smithsonian
Institution. He was awarded the Walker prize by the Boston
Society of Natural History; in 1900 his book, The Asiatic
 Fur Seal Islands, was awarded a gold medal. He conducted
many scientific expeditions, was a prolific scientific writer,
and was recognized as one of America’s leading biologists.
ENGLEHARD, JORGEN MARIANUS FLOOD (1852-d1921), Christiania,
2. He first had an export business in Norway. In 1896 he emigrated
to Brazil, where he entered the shipping business and also
served as Norwegian vice-consul.
FRETHEIM, RAGNVALD T. (1849-99), medicine, 18892. He was
born in Aurland. He emigrated to the United States in 1884
and practiced medicine in various places, mainly Kenyon, Minnesota.
HANSEN, FREDERIK WILHELM (b. 1851), Bergen, law. He was a
lawyer in Bodø; he emigrated to New Orleans about 1890.
HJORTH, FREDERIK (b. 1853), Fredrikstad, science, 1881. He
emigrated in 1882 and founded an importing business in Boston.
He returned to Norway in 1898.
HOFFLUND, CHRISTIAN GABRIEL (1853-1905), Trondheim, 2. He
emigrated in 1888; he was a physician and pharmacist in Blanchardville,
IBENFELDT, JOHAN HERMAN JACOBI (1852-89), 2, dentistry. He
died at Church Ferry, North Dakota.
JOHNSEN, PETER MAGNUS (b. 1853), Skien, 2. He was a tutor
in Norway; later he served on the staff of Fædrelandet
in La Crosse.
JOHNSEN (Johannesen), THEODOR HALFDAN (1852-1907), Christiania.
He was first a teacher; then he emigrated to the United States
and took land at the James River in North Dakota. He served
in various political capacities in North Dakota, and later
became a statistical expert in the census bureau and the geological
MORN, JOHAN GØRBITZ (b. 1853), Bergen, 2. He was a
businessman in Bergen. He died in the United States.
PETERSEN, HENRIK GEORG GADE (b. 1853). He was prominent 
in student life in Christiania as a speaker and poet. When
he departed for the United States in 18892 he wrote:
Langt bedre her ute Far better out here
selv midt i blandt savn even in the midst of want
enn hjemme at lute than to bow down at home
og skjule sitt navn, and hide one’s name.
He studied medicine in Boston and continued his work with
European specialists. He wrote for medical publications and
was a prominent doctor in Boston.
RAVN, LARS MICHAEL HANSEN (1852-1937), medicine, 1880. He
was born in Sogndal and began his practice in Scandinavia,
Wisconsin, in 1881; in 1900 he moved to Merrill, Wisconsin,
where he maintained a hospital. At various times he continued
his studies with specialists abroad.
SALVESEN, OLUF ANDEEAS (1853-91). He was a teacher in Norway
before he emigrated to the United States in 1890. He served
on the staff of Skandinaven and died in Chicago.
WINSNES, CHRISTIAN (b. 1852). He was a forester in Norway.
He emigrated in 1872 and tried a variety of jobs, finally
taking land in Dakota. Later he became a farmer and businessman
MONRAD, RAGNVALD MARCUS JULIUS (1854-1900), philology, 1883.
He was born in Christiania and studied in Germany and Italy.
He taught languages and history at Luther College in Decorah,
1883-88, and later worked on the newspapers Skandinaven (Chicago)
RASMUSSEN, ANTON (1853-1906), 2, Christiania. He studied
philosophy and literature in Christiania and later in England
and France. He emigrated in 1880, graduated from Luther Seminary
in St. Paul in 1885, and then served various parishes in Iowa
GRAFF, HARALD (1856-94), Christiania, medicine. 1881. He
practiced medicine in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, 1882-90, and
re turned briefly to Norway before settling in St. Paul.
GREVSTAD, NICOLAI ANDREAS (1851-1940), Christiania, law,
 1878. He was born in Sunnmøre. In 1880 he became
editor of the liberal organ Dagbladet. A split in the party
caused his dismissal in 1883 because of his “too pronouncedly
radical position.” He emigrated to the United States and soon
became editor of Nordvesten (St. Paul). In 1886 he returned
to Norway at the request of the liberal leader, Johan Sverdrup,
who served as prime minister after the introduction of the
parliamentary system in 1885. Grevstad returned to the Twin
Cities and became an editorial writer for a number of English-language
newspapers in Minneapolis, In 1892 he became editor of Skandinaven
(Chicago). For a time he was a member of the Illinois legislature.
In 1911 he became American minister to Uruguay and Paraguay;
he later returned to newspaper work, and in 1930 again became
editor of Skandinaven.
HJORTHØY, HUGO LAURENTIUS (b. 1855), Kristiansand,
law, 1878. He practiced law in Christiania and was city court
judge. He emigrated in 1896 and became a farmer in Vancouver,
KREFFING, TRULS WIEL (1856-84), Christiania, mining, 1879.
He was a mining director in Ica, Peru.
NERDRUM, GUSTAV SEVERIN (1855-94), Christiania, 2. He be
came a bookkeeper in De Soto, Wisconsin.
OLSEN, PETER RUDOLPH OSCAR (1854-1913), theology, 1882. He
was born in Drammen. He taught history and Greek at Luther
College in Decorah, 1883-85, and later served a church in
Arendal, Minnesota. He then taught religion and Norwegian
at the Lutheran Normal School in Madison from 1893 until 1897,
when he returned to Norway. Olsen wrote extensively about
ecclesiastical questions and about church conditions among
the Norwegians in America.
OTTESEN, HANS GULBRANDSEN (1855-1909), law, 1878. He was
a businessman in New York, beginning in 1885.
POPPE, JOHANNES ANTONIUS (1851-84). He was a pharmacist in
SANDBERG, KARL FERDINAND MARIUS (b. 1855), medicine, 1881.
He was born in Vestre Aker; in 1882 he emigrated to the United
States and began practicing in Chicago, specializing in 
gynecology. He studied in Europe, 1886-87, and was active
in Scandinavian clubs.
WEDEL-JARLSBERG, WILHELM FREDERIK (1854-1903). He died in
Brazil; he was a forester and surveyor.
ZIMMERMAN, JOHANNES JACOB FREDERIK (b. 1853), law, 1879.
He emigrated to Valparaiso, Chile, in 1890.
BUGGE, JENS CHRISTOFFER (b. 1857), Christiania, 2. He lived
in Syracuse, New York.
BYDAL, GUSTAV ADOLF (1856-1927), Kristiansand. He studied
philology, and was a teacher until he emigrated in 1886. He
was connected with various Norwegian-American newspapers:
Red River dalen (Grand Forks, North Dakota), Madison tidende,
and Superior (Wisconsin) tidende. For ten years he was an
advertising agent in Minneapolis.
CHRISTIE, HARALD (1858-1901), Trondheim, law, 1879. He be
came a supreme court lawyer. He later lived in Cambridge,
Massachusetts; he died in Pittsburgh.
DE BESCRE, JOHAN ABRAHAM (b. 1855), Christiania, medicine,
1883. He practiced medicine in Milwaukee, beginning in 1884.
HOLMBOE, ANTON THEODOR HARRIS (1857-1927), medicine, 1881.
He was born in Tromsø. He was a mining company surgeon
in Michigan, 1882-86, and later settled in Chicago, specializing
LANGE, ALEXANDER (1857-1905), Christiania, 2. He studied
at the technical school in Christiania, and emigrated to the
United States in 1880; he first worked for various railroads,
then tried gold mining in Honduras; he returned to railroad
work and took part in the construction of the railroad between
Chile and Argentina.
LUNDERBYE, HERLØF D’UNKER (b. 1855), Christiania.
He studied at the polytechnic institutes in Aachen and Dresden.
Later he emigrated and became a farmer in the state of Washington.
SCHJELDERUP, MARKUS FREDERIK (1856-98). He emigrated to the
United States in 1879. He first tried farming, next was in
 charge of a lifesaving station on the Pacific coast,
and later was an inspector for the Equitable Life Insurance
SCHREINER, JOHAN CHRISTIAN (1857-1925), Christiania, medicine,
1881. He emigrated to the United States in 1881 and practiced
medicine in Westby, Wisconsin.
CASPERSEN, ARTHUR (b. 1858), Christiania, 2. He studied at
the polytechnic institute in Dresden. He was a railroad engineer
in Brazil and later was a member of the Buenos Aires water
DREWSEN, VIGGO BENTNER (b. 1858). He studied chemistry in
Germany and received his doctorate in Munich in 1881. He taught
at the technical school in Trondheim, 1882-87; later he was
interested in various cellulose companies. He emigrated to
New York in 1894 to exploit his patents for papermaking mills.
GRØN, JULIUS SEVERIN (b. 1858), Christiania. He studied
at the business school in Dresden. He emigrated to the United
States in 1886 and settled in Kansas City.
HEYERDAHL, HALFDAN THORFIN (1859-99), law, 1880. He emigrated
in 1892, took a law degree in Minneapolis in 1894, and practiced
in Fergus Falls, Minnesota.
HEYERDAHL, RAGNVALD (b. 1857). He emigrated in 1882 and became
a businessman in El Paso, Texas.
HOLTAN, LORENTZ PETER HJALMAR (b. 1857), 2. He was a superintendent
for silver mines in Mexico; during 1885-86 he was editor of
the Spanish newspaper La Republica in San Francisco.
NIELSEN, THOR (b. 1857), medicine, 1881. He emigrated to
the United States in 1883 and practiced medicine in Fergus
Falls and Minneapolis in Minnesota, and Kenmare and Grafton
in North Dakota.
RISER, CARL (b. 1858), Christiania, 2. He studied medicine,
emigrated to the United States, and was employed as a pharmacist.
ROLLAND, HALFDAN (1858-89), law, 1882. He emigrated to the
United States in 1883. 
WINDINGSTAD, OLAF (b. 1857), Christiania. He studied at the
polytechnic institutes in Zurich and Aachen. He came to the
United States in 1880 and worked for various railroad companies
in California and the East.
BRYHN, CARL HERMAN (b. 1857), law, 1886. He emigrated in
1890 and became an engineer in South Africa and South America.
DÆHLI, A. J. (b. 1856), Christiania. He studied architecture
in Germany. He emigrated to the United States in 1882 and
became a partner in various firms of architects. He built
a number of churches and other buildings, notably in Brooklyn.
EIDEM, HERMAN ROBERT (b. 1858), Trondheim, 2. He came to
the United States in 1885 and was a lumber inspector and furniture
salesman in La Crosse, Prairie du Chien, and Alma, Wisconsin.
GROTH, PETER (1859-1930), philology, 1883. He studied in
Germany and won a prize for an essay on Old Norse philology.
He wrote many articles, scientific and popular, and received
his doctorate in 1897. He came to the United States in 1886,
was chief of the translation department of an insurance company
in New York, 1890-1912; later he was transferred to the main
office in Paris. He was one of the organizers of Det Norske
Selskap (The Norwegian Society) in New York.
HAGEN, EVEN ARNESEN (b. 1848), 2. He studied law, and emigrated
in 1889. He had many jobs as accountant and clerk, and tried
gold mining in Washington.
HENSCHIEN, GEORG FREDERIK (1858-1915). He was born in Christiania
and studied law before he came to the United States in 1886.
He tried a variety of jobs; he was very active in musical
OMSTED, NILS, (1859-1915). He was born in Christiania and
came to the United States in 1886. He practiced medicine in
Racine and Stoughton, Wisconsin, and in Denver.
SOOT, OLAF HOLM EINAR (b. 1857), Christiania. He studied
at the polytechnic institute in Dresden. He went to Argentina
in 1884, became chief engineer for several provinces, and
was in  charge of railroad construction work. In 1896
he was appointed a member of a commission to determine the
border between Argentina and Chile, and he explored large
parts of the Andes.
TANDE, OLE JOHANSEN (b. 1857), Christiania, 2. He emigrated
with his father in 1878. He studied theology at the Lutheran
Normal School in Madison, and became a teacher and businessman,
later a farmer near Grand Meadow, Minnesota.
BRYN, HARALD (1858-1922), medicine, 1887. He came to the
United States ill 1887 and spent some time in South Dakota,
but settled permanently in Brooklyn in 1888. He practiced
in several Scandinavian hospitals and took an active part
in Scandinavian groups in New York.
FUNNEMARK, HANS ANDREAS (b. 1855), 2. He emigrated to the
United States with his parents in 1880 and became a pharmacist.
GRUNG, FRANTZ DIDRIK (1858-97), Bergen, 2. He was a pharmacist
MØLLER, JOHAN OLAF LIHME (1859-1914), medicine, 1884.
He was born in Christiania and became a ship’s surgeon on
the Thingvalla Line. He settled in Chicago in 1887, but returned
to Europe to continue his medical studies in Berlin, Paris,
and Stockholm. Upon his return to the United States he practiced
in Hillsboro, North Dakota, where he founded a hospital. Later
he moved successively to Mayville, North Dakota; Duluth, Minnesota;
Rugby, North Dakota; and Spokane, Washington.
NORGREN, CARL LEONHARD (b. 1859), medicine, 1886. He had
a restless career; he moved back and forth between Norway
and the United States and spent periods in China and Mexico.
He practiced in La Crosse, Wisconsin; Tacoma, Washington;
San Francisco, California; and Sioux Falls, South Dakota;
he spent his last years in Norway.
ROGSTAD, OLAF KJØRBOE (b. 1859) Christiania. He studied
at the polytechnic institute in Dresden, engaged in business
in Norway, and practiced architecture in New York, beginning
in 1889. 
SOLBERG, PEDER (b. 1858), Molde, law, 1882. In 1889 he went
to Argentina, where he worked in various consulates; later
he established his own shipping firm in Buenos Aires.
STALBERG, HERMAN CORNELIUS (1858-1909), Lillehammer, 2. He
studied medicine for a couple of years. In 1882 he came to
the United States and, after trying many jobs, became a librarian
in the Union Club, New York.
TUFTE (Tufty), JONAS MARIUS OSCAR (1857-1921), medicine,
1885. He was born in Skien; he practiced medicine in Duluth,
Minnesota, from 1886 until his death.
BARCLAY, HJALMAR VALENTIN (b. 1860), Christiania, 2. He studied
law until he emigrated in 1882. He obtained a medical degree
in 1893 in New York, where he practiced, specializing in physical
HASUND, HANS NICOLAY (b. 1857), Christiania, theology, 1885.
He was a teacher and chaplain in Norway before coming to the
United States in 1898. Here he served in the Norwegian Synod
and as an instructor at Gale College, Galesville, Wisconsin.
Later he became a newspaper editor for Amerika (Chicago and
Madison), and Fram (Fargo, North Dakota). Finally he was a
member of the staff of Skandinaven (Chicago).
JORDHØY, SIGURD (1851-99), 2. He was a teacher before
emigrating to the United States in 1884. Here he was a teacher
and newspaperman; at his death he was a clerk in the North
TONNING, JOHAN GERHARD ARNT (b. 1860). He studied music in
Christiania and Munich and opened his own music school in
Christiania. He emigrated to the United States in 1887 and
be came a music instructor and orchestra director in Duluth.
He has written a number of compositions, some of them well
ARCTANDER, LUDVIG (b. 1863), 2. He came to America in 1881
to join a brother in Willmar, Minnesota. There he taught school,
edited the Willmar Argus, and obtained a law degree in 1885.
In  the next year he and his brother opened a law firm
in Minneapolis that became very successful.
ARVESCHAUG, ALBERT FREDERIK SAMUELSEN (1861-1913). He was
born in Hamar. He became a well-known opera singer and gave
many concerts in the United States and Norway. He died in
BACKE, HEINRICH EDMUND (1862-1932), medicine, 1887. He came
to the United States in 1888 and after having practiced in
several places settled in Kenyon, Minnesota, in 1898. He traveled
extensively in the United States and Europe, visiting university
clinics and hospitals.
BJELDAANAES, NIELS HEITMAN NIELSEN (1853-1921), Christiania,
2. He taught for a few years until he emigrated in 1883. He
started a salmon-canning factory, tried farming, and later
studied law in a firm in Madison, Wisconsin. He became a probate
court judge in Lac qui Parle, Minnesota.
SCHEE, BJØRN JOHAN JOHANNESEN (b. 1862), 2. He came
to the United States in 1882, obtained degrees in medicine
and pharmacy, and practiced in Westby, Wisconsin.
THORESEN, THORE NILS (b. 1861), medicine, 1889. He was born
in Eidsvold and emigrated in 1889. He practiced in a number
of places: Seattle, Washington; Baldwin, Wisconsin; Red Wing,
Morris, and Benson, Minnesota; he settled in Minneapolis in
<1> The author wishes to express his thanks to Professors
Clarence A. Clausen and Karen Larsen of the history department
at St. Olaf College and to the late Alf Houkom, librarian
at St. Olaf College, for their assistance in connection with
the preparation of this article.