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Norwegian Emigrants with University Training
1830-1880 {1}
    by Oystein Ore (Volume 19: Page 160)

Among the hundreds of thousands of Norwegian emigrants to America in the nineteenth century there were extremely few who had the benefit of university training in their homeland. The most obvious reason is that university students constituted a very small percentage of the population. More over, with a few exceptions they came from families with long traditions of higher education and public service. They saw small chance of finding suitable openings in the New World. In addition, through most of this time the professional class was dominated by a strong feeling of patriotism which looked askance at emigration as akin to treason. Some came from the wealthier and more influential families in which there was no strong pressure to seek better economic conditions. But a few did come, and they were important be cause many of them became leaders in their American communities.

With the rise of Norwegian pioneer communities in the West, the need for trained professional men became urgent; specifically, there was an immediate demand for ministers and medical men who could speak to the immigrants in their own tongue. Some settlements succeeded by direct approach in inducing a number of graduates in theology and medicine from the Royal Fredrik University at Christiania to come to the assistance of their troubled countrymen. Many of these men came solely from a strong sense of duty; others were influenced by the lack of suitable openings in Norway during certain periods, by hopes for richer rewards in a new country, [161] or simply by a spirit of adventure. Undoubtedly there were also a few who were failures or misfits and sought refuge far away from the mother country.

It might be of interest to enumerate this special little group of Norwegian emigrants, up to and including those who took the entrance examination for the university in 1880. Available as source material are the extensive published lists of Norwegian students; for example, P. Botten-Hansen, Norske studenter der har absolvert examen artium ved Christiania Universitet eller de artiums-berettigede skoler (Norwegian Students Who Have Passed the Artium Examinations at the University in Christiania or at Other Schools Authorized to Give Artium - Christiania, 1893). Much more detailed are the yearbooks published for each graduating class at its twenty-fifth or fiftieth reunion, but unfortunately they do not cover the first half century of the existence of the Royal Fredrik University. For obvious reasons these yearbooks do not always furnish the year of the graduate’s death; thus on this point our information is often deficient. The choice of the year 1880 as a terminating point for this list is purely arbitrary; it could easily have been continued to the present time through a study of the later year-books.

The names in the list that follows are arranged according to the year in which the eksamen artium, or simply artium, was taken. This degree was and still is the entrance requirement to the university. Since the university has somewhat more of the character of a graduate school than has an American college, the artium degree lies on a fairly high level, corresponding roughly to a junior college certificate.

So far as it is available in our sources, the following information about each candidate will be furnished: Name, dates of birth and death, location of the gymnasium from which he came, highest university degree obtained, and the year in which it was granted. Most of the degrees were taken in theology, medicine, and law, with a few instances, among [162] the later candidates, of science and philology. Many proceeded no farther than the eksamen philosophicum or annen eksamen, the second examination, a more general introductory degree for which the requirements could be satisfied in a year, or, at most, two. In each instance this degree has been indicated by the figure 2. Incidentally, it is remarkable how few in this emigrant group took no degree whatever beyond artium.

It seems impossible to establish any hard and fast rule as to which names should be mentioned. Many ministers and doctors came to America, to serve only a couple of years be fore returning to Norway. For the most part, only those who came to stay, or whose life work fell mainly in this country, have been included. There are a couple of instances of Norwegian professional men who decided to retire in the United States. This happened with EVEN MEIDAL SCHJELDERUP CORMONTAN (1798-1893), whose class entered in 1817-the earliest class on record that sent a member to America. Cormontan spent a long life in the service of the Norwegian church and it was not until 1887, when he was eighty-nine, that he left for America to spend his remaining years with his children, who had emigrated earlier.

STUDENTS OR GRADUATES WHO MIGRATED

1830

RYNNING, OLE (1809-38), 2. He was born in Ringsaker, where his father was a pastor. He spent some time at the university, but did not become a minister, as his father had hoped. He taught school for several years and left for America in 1837. He helped found the ill-fated Beaver Creek settlement in Illinois and died there from “swamp fever” (malaria). His little book Sand færdig beretning om Amerika (True Account of America) exerted a tremendous influence on Norwegian immigration. An English version translated and edited by Theodore C. Blegen, entitled Ole Rynning’s True Account of America, was published in Minneapolis in 1926. [163]

1831

SCHUBART, SØREN ANDREAS HAGERUP (b. 1812), 2. He emigrated about 1850, after having been a clerk in the department of finance and an entertainer at the Klingenberg variety theater in Christiania.

1832

LUND, NICOLAI (1814-47), Drammen, 2. He was a botanist and died in Venezuela.

REIERSEN, JOHAN REINERT (1810-64). He was born in Vestre Moland, near Kristiansand, where his father was a sexton. For some years he led a roving life, until 1839, when he founded Christiansandsposten; it soon became known throughout Norway as an agrarian and proemigration organ. During 1843 he was in America studying conditions there and on his return he published his Veiviser for norske emigranter (Guide for Norwegian Emigrants-Christiania, 1844). In 1845 he led a party of ten emigrants to Texas, where he founded a settlement called “Normandy.” From there Reiersen sent many enticing letters to Norwegian newspapers, but the Texas settlement did not attract many Norwegian recruits.

STUWITZ, PETER (1806-42), Bergen, theology, 1837. He died at St. John’s, Newfoundland, while on a zoological expedition.

1834

CLAUSEN, FRITZ CHRISTIAN (1810-70), theology, 1845. He was born in Trondheim, the son of a merchant. He was a teacher in Skien until he emigrated in 1857. He served as a pastor in Spring Grove, Minnesota, and Big Canoe, Iowa, until his death. It is reported that for a time he served thirteen other parishes.

1836

PREUS, ADOLF CARL (1814-78). He was a pastor in Wisconsin, 1850-72, and first president of the Norwegian Synod. He re turned to Norway in 1872.

VOGT, NIELS (1814-41), 2. He is reported to have died in Boston.

1840

FLEISCHER, FREDERICK CHRISTIAN (1821-78), law, 1844. He [164] took part in various unsuccessful business ventures before emigrating to California in 1852 to mine gold. Later he was a sailor on the Great Lakes, taught school in Wisconsin, and then turned to journalism, first as assistant editor of Emigranten (Inmansville and Madison, Wisconsin), and then as cofounder of Fædrelandet in La Crosse in 1864.

HEGGE, CHRISTIAN THORBERG (b. 1824), law, 1849. He served as a soldier in the United States.

STUB, HANS ANDREAS (1822-1907), theology, 1846. He was born in Fusa, near Bergen, the son of a minister. He emigrated in 1848 and served as a pastor, first at Muskego and later at Coon Prairie, Wisconsin. In 1853 Stub and six other ministers, C. L. Clausen, A. C. Preus, H. A. Preus, G. F. Dietrichson, J. A. Ottesen, and R. D. Brandt organized the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, usually known as the Norwegian Synod. Two years earlier Stub, A. C. Preus, and Clausen had founded the periodical Maanedstidende (Monthly Tidings- Racine, Wisconsin), which became the organ of the Synod. Stub later served parishes in Big Canoe and Hesper in Iowa, interrupted by an interval when he served several parishes in Nor way and later in the Inner Mission there. During his last years he lived as pastor emeritus at Sacred Heart, Minnesota.

THRANE, MARCUS MØLLER (1817-91). He was a famous Norwegian labor leader. As a young man he traveled in France and Switzerland, where he became acquainted with pre-Marxian socialism. He first studied theology, then tried teaching, but en countered opposition because of his radical ideas. During and after the revolutionary year 1848 in Norway he took a lively part in newspaper discussions and began organizing unions among laborers and cotters. As a result he was condemned in 1851 to four years’ imprisonment. He emigrated to the United States in 1863 and was for many years connected with several radical Chicago papers: Den norske amerikaner, Dagslyset, and Den nye tid.

1841

POPPE, ULRICH FREDERICH MATHIAS (b. 1820), medicine, 1848. He was a physician in Wisconsin. [165]

1843

PREUS, HERMAN AMBERG (1825-94), theology, 1848. He was first a teacher before being called as pastor to Spring Prairie, Wisconsin, in 1851. He retained this position for more than forty years, but his activities were by no means limited to his parish. He helped organize the Norwegian Synod in 1852-53 and was its president during the “critical generation” from 18692 to 1894. He took an active part in the educational work of the Synod, and was first editor, then co-editor of Kirkelig maanedstidende (Madison and Decorah), 1859-68, and was a prolific contributor to church publications throughout his life. During 1866-67 he visited Norway, where he delivered a series of lectures about religious and social conditions in the Norwegian-American settlements. Preus was a kindly, strong, and stern man. “We must rejoice when we are condemned as being hard-hearted, intolerant, and un-Christian,” he declared.

1844

BRANDT, NILS OLSEN (1824-1921), theology, 1849. He was born in Vestre Slidre, Valdres, and emigrated in 1851 when he accepted a call near Watertown, Wisconsin. Brandt was one of the founders of the Norwegian Synod and was its vice-president, 1857-71. From 1865 to 18892 he taught at Luther College and was a pastor in Decorah and neighboring congregations. Brandt did extensive mission work, walking countless miles through Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, and organizing congregations.

JENSEN, NIELS EDVARD SCHANKE (1824-75), theology, 1858. He emigrated in 1859 and served congregations in Rushford and Winona in Minnesota.

KOREN, ULRIK VILHELM (1826-1910), Bergen, theology, 1852. He emigrated in 1853 to serve parishes in northeastern Iowa. He soon became a power within the Norwegian Synod, acting successively as secretary, vice-president, president of the Iowa district, and president, 1894-1910. He took part in the great de bates about the common school, slavery, and predestination. “Koren was urbane and scholarly, a church statesman, the chief literary defender and expounder of the Synod’s aims and ideals.” His wife, Elisabeth, was a woman of culture. Her book of [166] memoirs, Fra pioneertiden (Decorah, Iowa, 1914), gives an intimate account of a pioneer Norwegian-American parsonage. It has been recently translated by David T. Nelson (The Diary of Elisabeth Koren, 1853-1855-Northfield, 1955).

OTTESEN, JAKOB AALL (1825-1904), theology, 1849. He was born in Nedre Romerike, and taught school in Christiania for a time before emigrating in 1852. He was pastor in parishes in Manitowoc and Koshkonong in Wisconsin and in Decorah, Iowa. He was one of the founders of the Synod and played a prominent part in its affairs. He was associate editor of Kirkelig maaneds tidende (Madison and Decorah), 1861-68. He was a man of simple piety, humanistic tastes, and keen humor; and he has been described as a “tenacious controversialist and grimly purposeful leader.”

SCHRØDER, JOHAN CHRISTOFFER HANS (b. 1824), 2. He was a founder, with Frederick Fleischer, of Fædrelandet (La Crosse, Wisconsin) in 1864. He took an active part in promoting immigration.

STEEN, LAURITZ (b. 1820), theology. He left for America in 1861 and served in parishes at Rock Dell, Harrison, and St. Olaf (Olmsted County), Minnesota.

1845

HJORT, OVE JACOB (1827-79), 2. He was born in Christiania, emigrated to the United States in 1861, and received a degree in theology at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, the following year. For the rest of his life he was a pastor at the Paint Creek parish near Waterville, Iowa.

HUSHER (HUSCHER), FREDERICK ANTON ODIN CHRISTIAN (1825- 94), theology, 1850. He was born in Viborg, Denmark, but his parents moved to Norway when he was three years old. He was a teacher and school principal until he was appointed minister in Nissedal, 1864. He left for America in 1869 and became a newspaper man with Fædrelandet og emigranten in La Crosse, Wisconsin. In 1873 he became editor of Budstikken in Minneapolis, but returned to Fædrelandet as editor in 1875. Later he was editor of Normanden (Grand Forks, North Dakota). Husher took an active part in politics and held various positions of trust [167] with the Republican administrations, both in Wisconsin and Minnesota. It has been said that “during his time he stood in a more intimate relationship with his reading public than probably any other Norwegian-American newspaperman.”

1849

MUUS, BERNT JULIUS INGEBRETSEN (1832-1900), Trondheim, theology, 1854. He taught school for a couple of years and then became editor of the important periodical Norsk kirketidende. In 1859 he emigrated and became pastor of Holden parish in Goodhue County, Minnesota. In the early days he served a total of twenty-eight parishes, covering an area as large as Denmark. In 1869 he announced that he would start an academy in connection with his church at Holden. By 1874 this project had expanded into St. Olaf’s School (later St. Olaf College), which in that year opened its doors at Northfield, Minnesota.

1850

LARSEN, PETER LAURENTIUS (1833-1915), Kristiansand, theology, 1855. He emigrated to the United States in 1857. He was pastor at Rush River, Wisconsin, 1857-59 and worked in a large area of Wisconsin and Minnesota, but his main work was in the educational field. He was professor at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis, 1859-61. When Luther College in Decorah, Iowa, was founded in 1861 he became its president, a position he filled until 1902. He was vice-president of the Norwegian Synod, 1876-93, and editor of Kirkelig maanedstidende (Decorah), 1868-74, and of Evangelisk luthersk kirketidende (Decorah), 1874-89 and 1902-12. “None of the Norwegian university men of the 1850’s possessed greater ability or exercised a deeper influence upon the Norwegian Americans than Larsen.” For a full account see Karen Larsen, Laur. Larsen: Pioneer College President (Northfield, 1936).

SIEWERS, CARL LYDER (1830-1907), 2. He was born in Fredrikstad. He taught in Christiania and then studied mathematics and natural science in Germany. In 1863 he went to Luther College, where he taught until 1877. He was editor of For hjemmet (Decorah), 1870-76, and of Decorah-posten, 1877-1907. [168]

1851

GRØNVOLD, JUST CHRISTIAN (b. 1833), science, 1860. He was born in Fron and taught mathematics for several years before emigrating in 1865. He received a medical degree at Humboldt Medical College, St. Louis, in 1869 and practiced in Goodhue County, Minnesota. He wrote articles for various medical journals and served on the Minnesota state board of health.

MAGELSSEN, CLAUS FRIMANN (1830-1904), theology, 1857. He emigrated in 1859 and served several parishes in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

1852

SCHØYEN, DAVID MONRAD (1835-96), law, 1859. He was born in Christiania. After several years of government service he emigrated in 1867 and became a lawyer and publicist in Chicago. He wrote for Skandinaven (Chicago) and Verdens gang (Chicago). In the early 1890’s he moved to Stoughton, Wisconsin, where he edited Nordmannen. Schøyen was the author of several books, one a history of the United States.

1853

LASSON, NIELS (1836-76), law. He died in New York.

1854

ARNTZEN, SVEND (1834-80), law, 1858. He was a supreme court lawyer. He emigrated in 1868.

FRICH, JORANNES BJERK (1835-1908), theology, 1862. During 1862-88 he was pastor in Halfway Creek and La Crosse, Wisconsin. He was president of Luther Seminary in St. Paul and professor of church history and homiletics, 1888-1902. He was editor of Kirketidende (Racine, Wisconsin), 1889-95.

HANSTEEN, THORVALD CHRISTOFFER (b. 1834), law, 1860. He emigrated in 1871 after practicing law at Hamar.

HIRSCH, EMIL KARENIUS CHRISTIAN (b. 1834), law, 1861. He emigrated after practicing law in Christiania.

SØNNICHSEN, JENS PETER (1835-1910), law, 1863. He emigrated in 1865 and received his medical degree at Ohio College, Cincinnati, 1875, winning the faculty prize for the best examination. [169] He was health officer in Cincinnati and later practiced medicine in Minnesota. He returned to Norway in 1902.

WANG, HARALD MARCUS (1837-1913). He was born in New York, but returned to Norway with his parents. He first studied medicine, then theology, before emigrating in 1874. He received his theology degree at Augsburg Seminary (Minneapolis) the same year and served various parishes in Wisconsin and the Dakotas.

1855

ANDERSEN, TRULS ANDREAS (1836-67), Christiania, 2. He died in Mexico.

B.JØRN, LUDVIG MARINUS (1834-1908), theology, 1860. He emigrated to the United States in 1861 and served parishes in Wisconsin and Minnesota. He was secretary of the Synod, 1879-87, but broke with it during the controversy over predestination. During 1890-94 he was vice-president of the United Norwegian Lutheran Church.

BØBERT, SØREN GEORG (1838-71), law, 1860. He died in New York.

BOYE, PETER STYRR (1835-62), 92. He died in the Guianas.

WALLOE, JENS LINDAHL (1836-81), Drammen, medicine, 1862. He was a physician at Coon Prairie, Wisconsin, in 1867.

1856

GEELMUYDEN, SEBASTIAN THEODOR (b. 1837), theology, 1862. He emigrated in 1867 and served several parishes in Wisconsin, among them Milwaukee. He returned to Norway in 1881.

HVISTENDAHL, CHRISTIAN MATHIAS (1838-1918), theology, 1862. He was ordained in the Norwegian Synod in 1864, and served in Muskego and Stoughton, Wisconsin, and in San Francisco. He returned to Norway in 1881.

WILSE, JOHAN FREDERIK (1837-1903). He was first a farm manager, then an accountant for the Sierra Lumber Company, Sierra Bay, California.

1857

MICHELET, NIELS CHRISTIAN (1837-1920), law, 1861. He was [170] born in Fredrikshald and emigrated in 1866. He worked for some time for Emigranten (Madison), and graduated from the University of Wisconsin law school in 1871. He held various govern mental positions until he moved to Minneapolis in 1882 to practice law. He was interested in art and literature and was a member of the board of a Norwegian art society in Minneapolis.

1858

HANSEN, JACOB VICTOR (1840-71), Trondheim, law, 1863. He died at Four-mile Prairie, Texas.

1859

BENDEKE, CARL OSCAR (1841-1906), 2. He was born in Christiania and studied medicine until he became a surgeon on an emigrant vessel. He practiced medicine briefly in Chicago and elsewhere until he settled in Minneapolis in 1875. He studied eye and ear diseases in the United States and several European countries and was considered one of the leading Scandinavian physicians of the Northwest.

HVOSLEF, JOHAN CHRISTIAN (1839-1920). He was born in Søndfjord. In the United States he studied at Rush Medical College, and then practiced medicine at Lanesboro, Minnesota. He was an international expert on botany, and a plant he discovered near Lanesboro is named for him.

JANSON, KRISTOFER NAGEL (1841-1917), theology, 1865. He was born in Bergen, where his father, a merchant, was American consul. He traveled extensively in Europe and upon his return to Norway became popular as a teacher and author. In 1881 he was ordained a Unitarian minister in Boston, and for a time he served a Norwegian Unitarian church at Hanska, Minnesota. He re turned to Norway in 1893.

NORGRENN, HANS AUGUST THEODOR (1840-81), 2. He died in Minneapolis.

TUFTE, OLE PETER (b. 1838), Skien, theology, 1866. He emigrated after having been a chaplain in Asker.

1860

CARLSEN, LAURITZ ANNÆUS KRAFT (1842-1913), theology, 1868. He emigrated to the United States in 1871 and served [171] parishes in Minnesota, Montana, and Idaho. During 1879-91 he was in charge of churches in Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii, and later he was Seamen’s Pastor in San Francisco. “Pastor Carlsen possessed all the traits which make a man a pioneer in his life work. His courage and self-sacrifice knew no bounds and his ability to win the confidence, especially of sea men, was unique.”

HOLMBOE, EVEN MARENUS (1842-1922), Trondheim, 2. He was born in Tromsø and studied at the institute of agriculture in Aas. He worked as an agronomist in various districts in Norway until he became superintendent of Bodsfengslet (the penitentiary) in Christiania in 1873. He emigrated in 1883. He was a parochial-school teacher in Iowa and Minnesota, later a photographer in Salem, North Dakota, and finally a gardener for the Sonoma Company, Santa Rosa, California. He was described as an unusual personality, interested in social problems.

1861

DAAE, IVER MUNTHE (b. 1881). He was a businessman in Chicago.

KOREN, HANS JACOB GRØGAARD (1842-99), medicine, 1869. He was a physician in Norway and the United States.

MAGELSSEN, JACOB WRIGHT (1843-1931), 2. He emigrated to America in 1863, and received a degree from Rush Medical College in 1866. After practicing at Koshkonong, Wisconsin, he moved to Rushford, Minnesota, in 1875, where he practiced until his death. He was a highly respected man in his community and held many positions of trust.

MOE, PEDER MARCUS ADOLPH (1842-77), Christiania, 2. He died in Chicago while a medical student.

1862

HØEGH, KNUT ØRN (1844-1925), Trondheim, medicine, 1869. He emigrated to the United States immediately after receiving his degree; he practiced in La Crosse, and, after 1887, in Minneapolis. He was prominent in the medical profession in Minnesota and a member of the state board of health. He contributed extensively to Norwegian-American publications. [172]

OFFEDAL, SVEN (1844-1911), Stavanger, theology, 1871. This well-known educator and church leader emigrated to the United States in 1873 and became professor of church history and exegesis at Augsburg Seminary in Minneapolis. He took part in the violent theological disputes that shook Norwegian-American society and was particularly acid in his criticisms of the Norwegian Synod and its president, H. A. Preus. He was, with Professor Georg Sverdrup, the leading spirit in the Conference of the Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and its daughter organization, the Lutheran Free Church.

SMITH, AXEL CHRISTIAN ROSENKRANTZ (1844-1917), medicine, 1869. He was born in Stavanger, emigrated in 1874, and practiced medicine in Decorah, Iowa, and Scandinavia, Wisconsin.

1863

DIETRICHSON, PETER GABRIEL (1844-91), Kristiansand, law, 1870. He was editor of Skandinaven (Chicago).

HARMENS, JOHAN CORDT (1845-78), Bergen, theology, 1870. He was a minister in La Crosse.

KROG, HANS JACOB GRØGAARD (1845-1904). He was born in Flekkefjord and emigrated in 1872 after teaching school a few years. He received his theology degree from Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, in 1874. He was a pastor for various congregations except during 1890-96, when he taught Latin and Norwegian at Luther College in Decorah, Iowa.

OLSEN, JOHAN (1844-1911), 2. He studied theology for two years before emigrating in 1866. He taught at Augsburg Semi nary in Minneapolis and later served congregations in Wisconsin and Iowa. He became vice-president and president of the Conference of the Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church; he published a collection of poems and numerous articles in church organs.

RYNNING, THEOPHILUS BENJAMIN (b. 1844), 2. He became a farmer in Wisconsin.

1864

HOLTERMANN, NIELS SCHULTZ (1845-96), Trondheim, 2. He was a physician in Glenwood, Minnesota. [173]

MOGSTAD, PETER THOMS BUSCHMANN (1845-83), 2. He interrupted his medical studies to become a surgeon on the emigrant ship “Høvding” from Tønsberg to New Zealand in 1868. He emigrated to America in 1872 and obtained his degree at Rush Medical College. He later practiced in Chicago.

SIQUELAND, TJIORVALD OLUF (1847-81), Stavanger, medicine, 1869. He emigrated in 1871 and practiced in Manistee, Michigan. He died there from typhoid.

STOLZ, CHRISTIAN (b. 1845), theology, 1874. He emigrated in 1875, and was a minister in the United States. He returned to Norway about 1890.

1865

BU, OLE AMUNDSEN (1842-1921), theology, 1874. He was born in Gudbrandsdalen and emigrated in 1875. He served a number of parishes in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota, and held positions of trust in Norwegian-American church bodies. He published many poems and articles.

DÆHLEN, OLE OLSEN (b. 1840), 2. He was born in Hadeland and emigrated to America in 1870. He received his theology degree from Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, in 1872. He served various congregations in Wisconsin until he took up farming in West Virginia in 1888.

DAHL, THYGE THORSEN (1847-82), 2. He died in Oregon.

MELLBY, OLE (1843-1917), Christiania, theology, 1871. He emigrated in 1872 and served various parishes in Minnesota, among them New Richland. He was an important figure, first in the Norwegian Synod, and later in the United Church, and was for several years a member of the board of St. Olaf College at Northfield.

MUSÆUS, JOHAN CARL AUGUST (1843-1931), theology, 1873. He was a minister at Scandinavia, Wisconsin, from 1875 until his return to Norway in 1895.

SCHUMANN, DANIEL CORNELIUS (b. 1846), Bergen, medicine. He practiced in Willmar, Minnesota.

SVERDRUP, GEORG (1848-1907), theology, 1871. He was born in Balestrand, and after receiving his degree studied Semitic [174] languages in Paris, 1871-73. In 1874 he was appointed professor of dogmatics and exegesis at Augsburg Seminary in Minneapolis; from 1876 to his death he was president of Augsburg. He was president of the Lutheran Free Church, 1894-97. Andreas Helland has written a biography of Georg Sverdrup, and has edited a six-volume edition of his writings.

TIDEMAND, NICOLAI FERDINAND (b. 1846), medicine, 1876. He was a physician in Montevideo in 1885.

1866

HANDE, HALVARD HALVORSEN (1846-87), Christiania, theology, 1871. He was born in Valdres; in 18792 he was called to Estherville, Iowa, as pastor. In 1874 he became editor of Norden (Chicago), a position he held until his death. “Hande was an unusually talented man with great journalistic ability. He made himself especially felt as a keen polemicist, a gift which, under Norwegian-American press conditions, has had rich opportunities for development.”

HJORTH, JULIUS HARTVIG FERDINAND (b. 1846), law, 1878. He was a businessman in Bergen and then emigrated.

OFTEDAL, GUSTAV MARCILIUS (1846-1919), law, 18792. He was born in Stavanger. He joined his brother Sven in the United States, and in 1877 took a theology degree at Augsburg Semi nary in Minneapolis. He served parishes in North Dakota and Minnesota.

RASCH, FERDINAND CHARLES (1848-80), Christiania, law, 1878. He spent some years in Martinique, completed his law studies in Norway, and then emigrated to the United States. He died in New York.

ROSENBERG, HANS JUUL (1848-1904), 2. He studied law for a while before emigrating in 1870. He bought land on Long Island and developed a large poultry farm.

SÆTHER, NIELS FERDINAND ROLSDORPH (1846-83). A pharmacist, he died in New York.

THAMS, TØNNES ANTON (1848-1912), Christiania, medicine, 1873. He was born at Sem and practiced medicine in Norway until he emigrated in 1884. He first practiced in Minneapolis and [175] later moved to Fargo, North Dakota. He was one of the organizers of a Norwegian art society in Minneapolis.

1867

ARCTANDER, CARL JOHAN LUDVIG WILHELM AUGUST (1849- 1920), Skien, 2. He was born in Stockholm; in 1853 his father became principal of the Latin School in Skien. In young Arctander’s student days he was a liberal journalist associated with Norsk folkeblad. In 1870 he left for Chicago to work on the paper Fremad; later he was on the staff of Nordisk folkeblad in Minneapolis. He studied law at the same time and became a very successful lawyer. He was interested in art and literature. He wrote extensively, translated Ibsen, and was a popular public lecturer. His last years were spent in Seattle.

BØCKMAN, MARCUS OLAUS (1849-1942), Christiania, theology, 1874. He was born in Langesund. He served parishes near Kenyon, Minnesota, until 1880, when he became a professor at the theological seminary of the Anti-Missourian Brotherhood at Northfield. During 1890-93 he taught at Augsburg Seminary in Minneapolis; he became president of the United Church Semi nary, then at Augsburg, in 1893. After the big church union in 1917 he was president of Luther Theological Seminary in St. Paul.

BOECKMANN, EDVARD (1849-1927), medicine, 1874. He was born in Østre Toten. He studied ophthalmology at several European universities and received his medical degree in Christiania in 1882. He served at hospitals in Bergen until he emigrated in 1886. He was connected with hospitals in St. Paul and Minneapolis, and became famous as an eye specialist, winning many honors in his field. He contributed extensively to medical journals.

BOYESEN, HJALMAR HJORTH (1848-95), Christiania, 2. He was born in Fredricksvern and studied in Leipzig before coming to the United States in 1869. He was editor of the weekly Fremad in Chicago and later devoted himself to teaching and literary work. His novels and short stories are well known. He taught classics at Urbana (Ohio) University, 1870-72, then German and Scandinavian languages at Cornell University. In 1880 he [176] became Gebhard professor in the same subjects at Columbia University.

HALVORSEN, HALVOR (1845-1921), theology, 1871. He was born in Stavanger. He served a number of congregations in Wisconsin, among them Coon Prairie. He was secretary of the Synod, 1887-96, and was a frequent contributor to Synod publications.

LARSEN, LUDVIG ADOLPH CHRISTIAN (b. 1847), Stavanger, law, 1872. He came to the United States some time during the 1880’s and was employed in the Union Bank in Chicago.

STADSTAD, ANDERS IVERSEN (b. 1840), theology, 1874. He was born in Hedemarken and emigrated to the United States in 1876. He served parishes in Douglas County, Minnesota, until 1887, when he engaged in farming near Sisseton, South Dakota.

1868

BEHRENS (Berentsen), BERENT MARTIN (1843-1912), medicine, 1875. He was born in Bergen. He studied otolaryngology in Berlin and Vienna after graduation. He settled in Chicago in 1882, and there helped found the Scandinavian-American Medical Society. Behrens was “a man of wide knowledge and of many interests in art and music.” He moved to Minneapolis in 1895 and later returned to Bergen.

CHRISTOFFERSEN, EMANUAL (1849-1909), Drammen, theology, 1873. He served as pastor at Pigeon Falls, Wisconsin, from 1876 until his death.

HOFF, CARL LUDVIG (1849-95), Skien. He obtained his degree in theology at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis in 1875. After having served the Bergen and Carver parishes near Glencoe, Minnesota, he became an office clerk in St. Paul.

LOSSIUS, OLE MAURITZ (1850-98), Kristiansund, medicine, 1877. He practiced medicine in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and Christine, North Dakota.

LOUS (Laws), FREDERIK FALKENBERG (b. 1849), Bergen, 2. He studied medicine until he left for the United States in 1873, and completed his studies at Chicago Medical College. He practiced in Stoughton, Wisconsin, and moved to Minneapolis in 1886. He [177] was an instructor in medicine and one of the founders of the Norwegian Deaconesses’ Home.

PREUS, ISACH LEVIN (b. 1849), was born in Stavanger. He studied theology until he left for the United States in 1870. He received his degree from Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, in 1873. He served churches in St. Louis; Chicago; Eau Claire, Wisconsin; San Francisco and Oakland; and in New Jersey.

SKATTEBOL, OLAF LARSEN (b. 1847), Christiania, theology, 1876. He was born in Aal, Hallingdal, and served as pastor in Aal and Gol, as well as Borge and Lofoten, before leaving for the United States in 1888. His parishes included Blue Earth, Minnesota; Lawrenceburg, Tennessee; Merrill, Wisconsin; Walcott, North Dakota; and Parkland-Tacoma, Washington. For a time he was a teacher at Columbia Lutheran College in Everett, Washington. He published numerous articles and championed the temperance movement in the papers Reform (Eau Claire, Wisconsin). and Amerika (Chicago and Madison).

TROEN, PETER AUGUST WILHELM (1840-1903), 2. He practiced medicine in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and La Crosse, Wisconsin, as well as in Florence, Oregon. He also took part in various business ventures.

1869

DAAE, (Doe), ANDERS (b. 1852), Skien, medicine, 1878. He was born in Fjeld. In 1880 he settled in Chicago, where he became prominent in Norwegian-American circles. He served on the staff of the Norwegian Hospital. In 1889 he studied in Berlin and Vienna. He wrote plays and poems and was deeply interested in music. For a number of years he served as correspondent for Aftenposten (Christiania). In 1906 he was official leader of the deputation from Det Norske Nationalforbund (Norwegian National League) at the coronation of King Haakon VII.

HEIBERG, CHRISTEN FAYE (1850-1936). He was born in Bergen and came to the United States in 1882. He first served on the staff of Folkebladet (Minneapolis). When the Minneapolis Public Library was organized in 1889, he became head of the document and periodical departments, a position he held until his retirement in 1922. [178]

HETTLESÆTER, CHRISTIAN HENRIK (1851-1915), Christiania, 2. He studied at the polytechnic institute in Aachen, Germany, and held various positions as instructor and engineer in Norway. He came to America in 1887 and first worked for various railroad companies. From 18992 he was a consulting engineer, specializing in bridge construction.

HOFFLUND, DANIEL (1850-1922), Trondheim. He emigrated in 18792. He was the first music teacher in Goodhue County, Minnesota. Later he was employed in the county clerk’s office at Superior, Wisconsin, and from 1891-93 he was clerk of the circuit court.

MAGELSSEN, MELCHIOR TSCHUDI (18592-95), Bergen, medicine, 1879. He was born in Christiania and emigrated to the United States in 1881. He practiced medicine in Albert Lea and Fergus Falls, Minnesota.

MEJER, BALTHAZAR JOHAN (1850-1919), Christiania, medicine, 1877. He was born in Brevik; after serving as district doctor in Biri and surgeon in the Norwegian navy he emigrated to Chicago, where he practiced medicine until his death. He was one of the founders of the Scandinavian-American Medical Society, and served as president of the organization in 1897.

OLSEN, CHRISTIAN FREDRIK MARTINUS (b. 1849), Christiania, 2. He was a lecturer and poet; he emigrated to New York in 1886.

SÆTHREN, JOHAN CHRISTIAN (1849-81), Christiania, theology, 1875. He died while minister of the Seamen’s Church, Pensacola, Florida.

1870

BREDA, OLAUS JENSEN (1853-1916), Christiania, 2. He was born in Horten. He emigrated to the United States in 1871 and studied at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis. After serving as pastor in St. Paul, he spent the years 1877-79 studying philology at Scandinavian universities. He taught Latin and Norwegian at Luther College in Decorah from 1879-82 and then returned to Norway for further studies. In 1884 he went to the University of Minnesota to fill the newly established professorship in Scandinavian languages; in 1899 he returned to Norway.

CHRISTENSEN, CHRISTIAN (1852-1919), medicine, 1879. He was [179] born in Grimstad and was a doctor in Bamle until he left for the United States in 1888. He settled in La Crosse, Wisconsin, where he joined the well-known doctors, A. Gundersen and G. Smedal. He became a fellow in the American College of Surgeons in 1918.

JAEGER, NIELS WINTHER LUTH (1851-1925), Christiania, 2. He was born near Arendal; he first did clerical work, then served on the editorial staff of Norden (Chicago). Later he was editor of Budstikken (Minneapolis). In 1886 he was the Democratic candidate for secretary of state of Minnesota but was defeated. He was later vice-president of a loan association. He eventually was employed in the administrative offices of the University of Minnesota.

MOE, MANUS FREDERIK HOLTERMAN (1851-93), Christiania, 2. He emigrated in 1873. He was a librarian first in Chicago, later in the Union Club in New York.

OMSTED, HANS (1852-82), Christiania, 2. He studied medicine in Norway and later in the United States. He was practicing in Denver at the time of his death.

SAHLGAARD, H. F. (1852-1913), law, 1880. He worked first in Hypothekbanken (the mortgage bank) in Christiania, and later practiced law until he left for the United States in 1887. He worked in a bank in St. Paul; later he became the Swedish vice-consul in Denver.

SARTZ, RICHARD SOPHUS NIELSEN (1852-1920), law, 1873. He practiced law in Norway for a few years and came to the United States in 1879, spending several years in Philadelphia and New York in the shipping business. He became editor of Minneapolis tidende in 1887, and later editor of Norden (Chicago); finally he served for twenty-two years as a translator with the Department of Agriculture in Washington, D.C.

SMITH, HANS CAPPELEN (b. 1860), law, 1879. He practiced law, first in Trondheim, then in Chicago.

STEINEGER, LEONHARD HESS (1851-1943), law, 1875. He came to the United States in 1881 and was connected with the Smithsonian Institution. He was awarded the Walker prize by the Boston Society of Natural History; in 1900 his book, The Asiatic [180] Fur Seal Islands, was awarded a gold medal. He conducted many scientific expeditions, was a prolific scientific writer, and was recognized as one of America’s leading biologists.

1871

ENGLEHARD, JORGEN MARIANUS FLOOD (1852-d1921), Christiania, 2. He first had an export business in Norway. In 1896 he emigrated to Brazil, where he entered the shipping business and also served as Norwegian vice-consul.

FRETHEIM, RAGNVALD T. (1849-99), medicine, 18892. He was born in Aurland. He emigrated to the United States in 1884 and practiced medicine in various places, mainly Kenyon, Minnesota.

HANSEN, FREDERIK WILHELM (b. 1851), Bergen, law. He was a lawyer in Bodø; he emigrated to New Orleans about 1890.

HJORTH, FREDERIK (b. 1853), Fredrikstad, science, 1881. He emigrated in 1882 and founded an importing business in Boston. He returned to Norway in 1898.

HOFFLUND, CHRISTIAN GABRIEL (1853-1905), Trondheim, 2. He emigrated in 1888; he was a physician and pharmacist in Blanchardville, Wisconsin.

IBENFELDT, JOHAN HERMAN JACOBI (1852-89), 2, dentistry. He died at Church Ferry, North Dakota.

JOHNSEN, PETER MAGNUS (b. 1853), Skien, 2. He was a tutor in Norway; later he served on the staff of Fædrelandet in La Crosse.

JOHNSEN (Johannesen), THEODOR HALFDAN (1852-1907), Christiania. He was first a teacher; then he emigrated to the United States and took land at the James River in North Dakota. He served in various political capacities in North Dakota, and later became a statistical expert in the census bureau and the geological survey.

MORN, JOHAN GØRBITZ (b. 1853), Bergen, 2. He was a businessman in Bergen. He died in the United States.

PETERSEN, HENRIK GEORG GADE (b. 1853). He was prominent [181] in student life in Christiania as a speaker and poet. When he departed for the United States in 18892 he wrote:

Langt bedre her ute Far better out here
selv midt i blandt savn even in the midst of want
enn hjemme at lute than to bow down at home
og skjule sitt navn, and hide one’s name.

He studied medicine in Boston and continued his work with European specialists. He wrote for medical publications and was a prominent doctor in Boston.

RAVN, LARS MICHAEL HANSEN (1852-1937), medicine, 1880. He was born in Sogndal and began his practice in Scandinavia, Wisconsin, in 1881; in 1900 he moved to Merrill, Wisconsin, where he maintained a hospital. At various times he continued his studies with specialists abroad.

SALVESEN, OLUF ANDEEAS (1853-91). He was a teacher in Norway before he emigrated to the United States in 1890. He served on the staff of Skandinaven and died in Chicago.

WINSNES, CHRISTIAN (b. 1852). He was a forester in Norway. He emigrated in 1872 and tried a variety of jobs, finally taking land in Dakota. Later he became a farmer and businessman in Alberta.

1872

MONRAD, RAGNVALD MARCUS JULIUS (1854-1900), philology, 1883. He was born in Christiania and studied in Germany and Italy. He taught languages and history at Luther College in Decorah, 1883-88, and later worked on the newspapers Skandinaven (Chicago) and Decorah-posten.

RASMUSSEN, ANTON (1853-1906), 2, Christiania. He studied philosophy and literature in Christiania and later in England and France. He emigrated in 1880, graduated from Luther Seminary in St. Paul in 1885, and then served various parishes in Iowa until 1892.

1873

GRAFF, HARALD (1856-94), Christiania, medicine. 1881. He practiced medicine in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, 1882-90, and re turned briefly to Norway before settling in St. Paul.

GREVSTAD, NICOLAI ANDREAS (1851-1940), Christiania, law, [182] 1878. He was born in Sunnmøre. In 1880 he became editor of the liberal organ Dagbladet. A split in the party caused his dismissal in 1883 because of his “too pronouncedly radical position.” He emigrated to the United States and soon became editor of Nordvesten (St. Paul). In 1886 he returned to Norway at the request of the liberal leader, Johan Sverdrup, who served as prime minister after the introduction of the parliamentary system in 1885. Grevstad returned to the Twin Cities and became an editorial writer for a number of English-language newspapers in Minneapolis, In 1892 he became editor of Skandinaven (Chicago). For a time he was a member of the Illinois legislature. In 1911 he became American minister to Uruguay and Paraguay; he later returned to newspaper work, and in 1930 again became editor of Skandinaven.

HJORTHØY, HUGO LAURENTIUS (b. 1855), Kristiansand, law, 1878. He practiced law in Christiania and was city court judge. He emigrated in 1896 and became a farmer in Vancouver, B. C.

KREFFING, TRULS WIEL (1856-84), Christiania, mining, 1879. He was a mining director in Ica, Peru.

NERDRUM, GUSTAV SEVERIN (1855-94), Christiania, 2. He be came a bookkeeper in De Soto, Wisconsin.

OLSEN, PETER RUDOLPH OSCAR (1854-1913), theology, 1882. He was born in Drammen. He taught history and Greek at Luther College in Decorah, 1883-85, and later served a church in Arendal, Minnesota. He then taught religion and Norwegian at the Lutheran Normal School in Madison from 1893 until 1897, when he returned to Norway. Olsen wrote extensively about ecclesiastical questions and about church conditions among the Norwegians in America.

OTTESEN, HANS GULBRANDSEN (1855-1909), law, 1878. He was a businessman in New York, beginning in 1885.

POPPE, JOHANNES ANTONIUS (1851-84). He was a pharmacist in Iola, Wisconsin.

SANDBERG, KARL FERDINAND MARIUS (b. 1855), medicine, 1881. He was born in Vestre Aker; in 1882 he emigrated to the United States and began practicing in Chicago, specializing in [183] gynecology. He studied in Europe, 1886-87, and was active in Scandinavian clubs.

WEDEL-JARLSBERG, WILHELM FREDERIK (1854-1903). He died in Brazil; he was a forester and surveyor.

ZIMMERMAN, JOHANNES JACOB FREDERIK (b. 1853), law, 1879. He emigrated to Valparaiso, Chile, in 1890.

1874

BUGGE, JENS CHRISTOFFER (b. 1857), Christiania, 2. He lived in Syracuse, New York.

BYDAL, GUSTAV ADOLF (1856-1927), Kristiansand. He studied philology, and was a teacher until he emigrated in 1886. He was connected with various Norwegian-American newspapers: Red River dalen (Grand Forks, North Dakota), Madison tidende, and Superior (Wisconsin) tidende. For ten years he was an advertising agent in Minneapolis.

CHRISTIE, HARALD (1858-1901), Trondheim, law, 1879. He be came a supreme court lawyer. He later lived in Cambridge, Massachusetts; he died in Pittsburgh.

DE BESCRE, JOHAN ABRAHAM (b. 1855), Christiania, medicine, 1883. He practiced medicine in Milwaukee, beginning in 1884.

HOLMBOE, ANTON THEODOR HARRIS (1857-1927), medicine, 1881. He was born in Tromsø. He was a mining company surgeon in Michigan, 1882-86, and later settled in Chicago, specializing in surgery.

LANGE, ALEXANDER (1857-1905), Christiania, 2. He studied at the technical school in Christiania, and emigrated to the United States in 1880; he first worked for various railroads, then tried gold mining in Honduras; he returned to railroad work and took part in the construction of the railroad between Chile and Argentina.

LUNDERBYE, HERLØF D’UNKER (b. 1855), Christiania. He studied at the polytechnic institutes in Aachen and Dresden. Later he emigrated and became a farmer in the state of Washington.

SCHJELDERUP, MARKUS FREDERIK (1856-98). He emigrated to the United States in 1879. He first tried farming, next was in [184] charge of a lifesaving station on the Pacific coast, and later was an inspector for the Equitable Life Insurance Company.

SCHREINER, JOHAN CHRISTIAN (1857-1925), Christiania, medicine, 1881. He emigrated to the United States in 1881 and practiced medicine in Westby, Wisconsin.

1875

CASPERSEN, ARTHUR (b. 1858), Christiania, 2. He studied at the polytechnic institute in Dresden. He was a railroad engineer in Brazil and later was a member of the Buenos Aires water commission.

DREWSEN, VIGGO BENTNER (b. 1858). He studied chemistry in Germany and received his doctorate in Munich in 1881. He taught at the technical school in Trondheim, 1882-87; later he was interested in various cellulose companies. He emigrated to New York in 1894 to exploit his patents for papermaking mills.

GRØN, JULIUS SEVERIN (b. 1858), Christiania. He studied at the business school in Dresden. He emigrated to the United States in 1886 and settled in Kansas City.

HEYERDAHL, HALFDAN THORFIN (1859-99), law, 1880. He emigrated in 1892, took a law degree in Minneapolis in 1894, and practiced in Fergus Falls, Minnesota.

HEYERDAHL, RAGNVALD (b. 1857). He emigrated in 1882 and became a businessman in El Paso, Texas.

HOLTAN, LORENTZ PETER HJALMAR (b. 1857), 2. He was a superintendent for silver mines in Mexico; during 1885-86 he was editor of the Spanish newspaper La Republica in San Francisco.

NIELSEN, THOR (b. 1857), medicine, 1881. He emigrated to the United States in 1883 and practiced medicine in Fergus Falls and Minneapolis in Minnesota, and Kenmare and Grafton in North Dakota.

RISER, CARL (b. 1858), Christiania, 2. He studied medicine, emigrated to the United States, and was employed as a pharmacist.

ROLLAND, HALFDAN (1858-89), law, 1882. He emigrated to the United States in 1883. [185]

WINDINGSTAD, OLAF (b. 1857), Christiania. He studied at the polytechnic institutes in Zurich and Aachen. He came to the United States in 1880 and worked for various railroad companies in California and the East.

1876

BRYHN, CARL HERMAN (b. 1857), law, 1886. He emigrated in 1890 and became an engineer in South Africa and South America.

DÆHLI, A. J. (b. 1856), Christiania. He studied architecture in Germany. He emigrated to the United States in 1882 and became a partner in various firms of architects. He built a number of churches and other buildings, notably in Brooklyn.

EIDEM, HERMAN ROBERT (b. 1858), Trondheim, 2. He came to the United States in 1885 and was a lumber inspector and furniture salesman in La Crosse, Prairie du Chien, and Alma, Wisconsin.

GROTH, PETER (1859-1930), philology, 1883. He studied in Germany and won a prize for an essay on Old Norse philology. He wrote many articles, scientific and popular, and received his doctorate in 1897. He came to the United States in 1886, was chief of the translation department of an insurance company in New York, 1890-1912; later he was transferred to the main office in Paris. He was one of the organizers of Det Norske Selskap (The Norwegian Society) in New York.

HAGEN, EVEN ARNESEN (b. 1848), 2. He studied law, and emigrated in 1889. He had many jobs as accountant and clerk, and tried gold mining in Washington.

HENSCHIEN, GEORG FREDERIK (1858-1915). He was born in Christiania and studied law before he came to the United States in 1886. He tried a variety of jobs; he was very active in musical circles.

OMSTED, NILS, (1859-1915). He was born in Christiania and came to the United States in 1886. He practiced medicine in Racine and Stoughton, Wisconsin, and in Denver.

SOOT, OLAF HOLM EINAR (b. 1857), Christiania. He studied at the polytechnic institute in Dresden. He went to Argentina in 1884, became chief engineer for several provinces, and was in [186] charge of railroad construction work. In 1896 he was appointed a member of a commission to determine the border between Argentina and Chile, and he explored large parts of the Andes.

TANDE, OLE JOHANSEN (b. 1857), Christiania, 2. He emigrated with his father in 1878. He studied theology at the Lutheran Normal School in Madison, and became a teacher and businessman, later a farmer near Grand Meadow, Minnesota.

1877

BRYN, HARALD (1858-1922), medicine, 1887. He came to the United States ill 1887 and spent some time in South Dakota, but settled permanently in Brooklyn in 1888. He practiced in several Scandinavian hospitals and took an active part in Scandinavian groups in New York.

FUNNEMARK, HANS ANDREAS (b. 1855), 2. He emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1880 and became a pharmacist.

GRUNG, FRANTZ DIDRIK (1858-97), Bergen, 2. He was a pharmacist in Chicago.

MØLLER, JOHAN OLAF LIHME (1859-1914), medicine, 1884. He was born in Christiania and became a ship’s surgeon on the Thingvalla Line. He settled in Chicago in 1887, but returned to Europe to continue his medical studies in Berlin, Paris, and Stockholm. Upon his return to the United States he practiced in Hillsboro, North Dakota, where he founded a hospital. Later he moved successively to Mayville, North Dakota; Duluth, Minnesota; Rugby, North Dakota; and Spokane, Washington.

NORGREN, CARL LEONHARD (b. 1859), medicine, 1886. He had a restless career; he moved back and forth between Norway and the United States and spent periods in China and Mexico. He practiced in La Crosse, Wisconsin; Tacoma, Washington; San Francisco, California; and Sioux Falls, South Dakota; he spent his last years in Norway.

ROGSTAD, OLAF KJØRBOE (b. 1859) Christiania. He studied at the polytechnic institute in Dresden, engaged in business in Norway, and practiced architecture in New York, beginning in 1889. [187]

SOLBERG, PEDER (b. 1858), Molde, law, 1882. In 1889 he went to Argentina, where he worked in various consulates; later he established his own shipping firm in Buenos Aires.

1878

STALBERG, HERMAN CORNELIUS (1858-1909), Lillehammer, 2. He studied medicine for a couple of years. In 1882 he came to the United States and, after trying many jobs, became a librarian in the Union Club, New York.

TUFTE (Tufty), JONAS MARIUS OSCAR (1857-1921), medicine, 1885. He was born in Skien; he practiced medicine in Duluth, Minnesota, from 1886 until his death.

1879

BARCLAY, HJALMAR VALENTIN (b. 1860), Christiania, 2. He studied law until he emigrated in 1882. He obtained a medical degree in 1893 in New York, where he practiced, specializing in physical therapy.

HASUND, HANS NICOLAY (b. 1857), Christiania, theology, 1885. He was a teacher and chaplain in Norway before coming to the United States in 1898. Here he served in the Norwegian Synod and as an instructor at Gale College, Galesville, Wisconsin. Later he became a newspaper editor for Amerika (Chicago and Madison), and Fram (Fargo, North Dakota). Finally he was a member of the staff of Skandinaven (Chicago).

JORDHØY, SIGURD (1851-99), 2. He was a teacher before emigrating to the United States in 1884. Here he was a teacher and newspaperman; at his death he was a clerk in the North Dakota legislature.

TONNING, JOHAN GERHARD ARNT (b. 1860). He studied music in Christiania and Munich and opened his own music school in Christiania. He emigrated to the United States in 1887 and be came a music instructor and orchestra director in Duluth. He has written a number of compositions, some of them well known.

1880

ARCTANDER, LUDVIG (b. 1863), 2. He came to America in 1881 to join a brother in Willmar, Minnesota. There he taught school, edited the Willmar Argus, and obtained a law degree in 1885. In [188] the next year he and his brother opened a law firm in Minneapolis that became very successful.

ARVESCHAUG, ALBERT FREDERIK SAMUELSEN (1861-1913). He was born in Hamar. He became a well-known opera singer and gave many concerts in the United States and Norway. He died in Portland, Oregon.

BACKE, HEINRICH EDMUND (1862-1932), medicine, 1887. He came to the United States in 1888 and after having practiced in several places settled in Kenyon, Minnesota, in 1898. He traveled extensively in the United States and Europe, visiting university clinics and hospitals.

BJELDAANAES, NIELS HEITMAN NIELSEN (1853-1921), Christiania, 2. He taught for a few years until he emigrated in 1883. He started a salmon-canning factory, tried farming, and later studied law in a firm in Madison, Wisconsin. He became a probate court judge in Lac qui Parle, Minnesota.

SCHEE, BJØRN JOHAN JOHANNESEN (b. 1862), 2. He came to the United States in 1882, obtained degrees in medicine and pharmacy, and practiced in Westby, Wisconsin.

THORESEN, THORE NILS (b. 1861), medicine, 1889. He was born in Eidsvold and emigrated in 1889. He practiced in a number of places: Seattle, Washington; Baldwin, Wisconsin; Red Wing, Morris, and Benson, Minnesota; he settled in Minneapolis in 1907.

Notes

<1> The author wishes to express his thanks to Professors Clarence A. Clausen and Karen Larsen of the history department at St. Olaf College and to the late Alf Houkom, librarian at St. Olaf College, for their assistance in connection with the preparation of this article.

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