The Introduction of Domesticated Reindeer
By Arthur S. Peterson (Volume XI: Page 98)
The reindeer industry was originally conceived to be a native domestic industry for the welfare of a backward and primitive race, whose subsistence had been almost destroyed by the whites. That it served its purpose in providing for the Eskimo there can be no doubt. It also served to insure the relief of shipwrecked, icebound whalers in the Far North, and of distressed miners prospecting the outlands, although that was not the main reason for the hiring of Lapp herdsmen and the teaching of Eskimos to handle their herds.
The introduction of reindeer into Alaska has changed the Eskimos from a nomadic to a pastoral people. "Its introduction," said the late Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, "was the one constructive thing that the Government has done for the Eskimo natives in fifty years.
Credit for the introduction of domesticated reindeer into Alaska must go to Mr. William Thomas Lopp, chief of the Alaska division of the bureau of education. When asked how he happened to hit upon the idea, Mr. Lopp said,
It was in 1890 during my first Winter's exile in the native village at Cape Prince of Wales that the idea of using reindeer as a means of food, clothing and transportation first suggested itself to me. . . . My mind went back to my geography lessons in school. Here I was, living in the same latitude as the Lapps, who, as I had learned in school, depended upon the reindeer for their livelihood. Naturally, the same climatic conditions suggested the feasibility of the reindeer industry in Alaska.
Captain M. A. Healy, who commanded the revenue cutter "Bear," transmitted the idea to Dr. Sheldon Jackson. He in turn requested Congress to provide funds for buying Siberian reindeer. This request was ultimately met, and "in 1892 a herd of 170 reindeer was brought over from Siberia to Port Clarence." Following this delivery, regular shipments were made for a decade.
Ivan Petroff, Alaskan census enumerator in 1890, said that the scheme would not be successful, that it would be hard to make herders out of the Eskimo hunters, and that the Eskimo dogs would kill the deer. Mr. Lopp was not discouraged, however, and, being familiar with the native tongues of the Eskimo people, he was able to appeal to their best instincts. He enlisted the most promising young men by convincing them of their responsibility and by awakening their ambition to leadership. As an incentive to their interest, he assured them that in due time they could expect a substantial reward.
Dr. Sheldon Jackson, a pioneer Presbyterian missionary, deserves the lion's share of the credit for the actual success of the industry, for it was in him that the movement found a capable and energetic leader, who realized that the economic problems confronting the Eskimo tribes in Alaska had to be faced honestly if the people were to survive.
At this time Major General A. W. Greely, long the superior authority in all Alaskan matters, said that unless the wholesale destruction of land game, the practical extinction of sea game, and the influx of miners were controlled, the extermination of thousands of natives by starvation was imminent. Realizing that the problem facing the Eskimo was one of gigantic proportions, Dr. Jackson began to work with a tireless enthusiasm which eventually began to bear results. Jackson made contacts with churches, mission boards, and benevolent individuals, until he raised $2,146.00 in supplies,
not money, for barter was the only way to deal with the Siberian Eskimo across the Bering Straits from Alaska.
In 1891, after several trips had been made into Siberia to buy reindeer, the quest was rewarded by the acquisition of several animals. These were transported to Alaska on the revenue cutter "Bear." Following the first success, several weeks were spent in inquiry and investigations in the attempt to find more deer. By the fall of 1891, the Americans had been able to purchase only sixteen deer. With these they also brought four Siberian herders to care for the reindeer and to instruct the natives of Alaska in the proper care and treatment of them. In 1892 Dr. Jackson was able to purchase 170 more reindeer in Siberia and to transport them successfully to Alaska. In this phase of the movement the government did not participate other than to lend the cutter "Bear" for the purpose of transportation.
One of the most important problems facing Dr. Jackson was the selection of a favorable place to land the newly purchased reindeer. In choosing such a location he had to take into consideration the nearness of the port to the coast of Siberia, the character of the harbor, its position with reference to future distribution of reindeer, and a supply of good pasturage and water.
These conditions were best met at the watering station of the whaling fleet, in Port Clarence, near Grantley Harbor. On June 29, 1892, Jackson selected that point for the reindeer station, and on the same day erected two tents to serve as temporary quarters until a more serviceable building could be erected.
Port Clarence was the best harbor on the American side of the Bering Sea, north of the Aleutian Islands and but forty or fifty miles from Bering Straits. It formed a convenient stopping place for the whalers before
they entered the Arctic Ocean, and became the favorite rendezvous of whalers waiting for provisions and supplies.
Because Secretary of the Interior Henry M. Teller of Colorado had authorized the establishment of the school system of Alaska in 1885, and because he took an active part in securing the necessary Congressional legislation supporting the reindeer movement, Dr. Jackson named the new station the "Teller Reindeer Station."
In 1893 Congress made its first small appropriation of $6,000.00 from public funds.
These funds were to aid in the continuation of the project started by Dr. Jackson with the donations mentioned earlier.
In 1893 the quest for reindeer in Siberia was again resumed, this time with more vigor and enthusiasm, because of the Congressional appropriation. When the " Bear " reached Plover Bay, where arrangements had been made to buy a number of reindeer, the Americans found the native traders with whom they expected to deal intoxicated. Lieutenant D. H. Jarvis of the "Bear" was sent ashore several days later to buy reindeer, and after an absence of several days he returned with but ten animals. Throughout the remainder of the season the "Bear" made repeated trips to the coast of Siberia, but the natives could not be dealt with, for they were drunk most of the time, owing to their indulgence in liquor bought from whaling ships.
On one trip to Siberia, Captain Healy of the "Bear" found that Captain Wagner of the schooner "Berwick" had visited Siberia to secure reindeer for American exhibition purposes. It was reported that Captain Wagner had represented himself to be buying deer for the government and had traded liquor to the natives, a circumstance that demoralized the trade for the season. Whenever Captain Healy tried to trade for reindeer, the first demand on the part of the
natives was for whisky. He reported that the unauthorized whisky trading of Captain Wagner had prevented the government from purchasing at least one hundred reindeer, besides increasing the prices of those purchased. The total number of reindeer purchased for the season was 127.
The Americans also were faced with the problem of allaying a native superstition regarding the sale of live reindeer. The natives believed that reindeer should be killed by one of their tribe according to a ritual practiced for generations. It was possible to buy as many dead reindeer as one wanted, but the natives would not sell a live one. They would refuse a fortune in bartered goods for one live deer, but dead ones could be bought for about seventy-five cents apiece.
The reindeer in Alaska at this time needed capable management if the venture was to prove successful. In order that this might be provided, Dr. Jackson decided to secure the services of some intelligent Norwegian or Swede who was accustomed to the methods employed in the care of reindeer in Lapland. Accordingly, he resolved in December, 1895, to send a notice to Scandinavian papers in the United States, announcing that he wished to acquire the services of men acquainted with the management of reindeer.
The Scandinavian papers entered into the spirit of the request and devoted much space to it. About two hundred and fifty replies were received. From among this number, and largely upon the recommendation of Professor Rasmus B. Anderson, head of the Scandinavian department at the University of Wisconsin, Dr. Jackson selected William A. Kjellmann of Madison, Wisconsin, as superintendent of the reindeer station.
That Kjellmann had the necessary qualifications, there could be little doubt. He was born in Taloik in Finmarkens, and as soon as he was old enough he was set to work herding
reindeer. He continued this work until he was twenty-one years old, and then was taken into a merchant firm, where he spent six years in the buying and selling of reindeer and reindeer products. At the time of his appointment as superintendent, Kjellmann was thirty-two years old and in splendid health.
The two hundred and fifty applicants for the position to which Kjellmann was appointed seemed to be unanimous in the opinion that it would be necessary to have a few families of Laplanders to do the herding and to give instructions to young Eskimos. Since there were no full-blooded Laplanders in America, they would have to be brought over from their homeland. The applicants also said that the herding would be practically impossible unless trained dogs were imported from Lapland. Among other comments of the applicants, was one to the effect that the care of the deer as performed by the Laplanders was much superior to that given by Siberian herders.
Accordingly, one of the first functions of the new superintendent was that of getting four families of Lapps to go to Alaska to supervise the training of the natives in their new venture. These families were assured transportation back to their native land at the end of a four-year stay, during which they were to devote their whole time to the demonstration of proper reindeer care to the natives.
The policy of the department of the interior was to look to the early and gradual transfer of all reindeer to industrious and worthy natives. In order to distribute the deer properly and to foster their care and breeding, small herds were lent to such missions as agreed to train Eskimo apprentices as herders and to return the herds to the government at the end of five years. These missions were to be allowed to
retain the increase. Following this procedure, and adhering to the agreement stipulated by the government, Congregational, Norwegian Lutheran, Swedish Evangelical, Friends, Catholic, Methodist, Moravian, and Presbyterian missions applied for loans of reindeer and were granted them.
The owners of the herds were allowed to kill the surplus males and sell their meat and skins, but female deer were not to be sold. The ownership by 1909 was to be divided into four groups. The Lapp instructors were to own fourteen per cent of the total; the missions, twenty-two per cent; the United States government, twenty-three per cent; and the Eskimo herders and apprentices, forty-one per cent.
The term apprentice, as used in connection with the Eskimo and reindeer herds, applied to the natives who desired animals. To get deer from the government, the native was required to serve a term of internship of approximately five years. During this term he was compelled to tend the herds day and night, winter and summer. Thus he was able to watch the Lapp herders and the more experienced native herders, and in this way study the proper care of the deer. At the end of his first year of service the apprentice would receive reindeer as remuneration. These deer were allowed to run with the herd, and, as each of the four remaining years of his apprenticeship was completed, the apprentice would receive more animals. By the time that he had completed his apprenticeship, the Eskimo would have a small herd of his own. This system assured the government that the native would have a thorough knowledge of his responsibility, and that, when he assumed ownership of the herd, he would be able to act independently and wisely. Accordingly, this system of apprenticeship was followed from the very beginning of the reindeer industry. That the plan was a wise one can be readily seen when one notes the rapidity with which natives began to acquire herds of their own.
At the close of the nineteenth century whalers were still entering the Arctic Ocean in search of the lucrative oil-producing mammal. The reindeer industry in Alaska may be mentioned in connection with whaling at this point. In September, 1897, eight whalers were caught in the ice near Point Barrow, the northernmost point of the North American continent. Through indirect means, the government heard that the whalers were imprisoned in the Point Barrow area, and sent Lieutenant Jarvis of the United States Revenue Cutter Service with an expedition to relieve the icebound sailors.
Four of the whalers were caught in the ice east of Point Barrow, and while trying to aid each other, found themselves all imprisoned. The other four whalers were similarly caught west of Point Barrow. When the crews of the boats imprisoned east of Point Barrow arrived at the point, they took stock of their provisions, and it was estimated that, with two scanty meals a day, the provisions would last until July 1. It was not until then that they learned of the similar fate of the four boats caught west of Point Barrow. With the crews of eight whalers to support in addition to its own population, Point Barrow realized that it had a serious problem upon its hands.
It was decided to dispatch two messengers to San Francisco for aid. These messengers were to travel by different routes to increase the probability of the delivery of the message. Meanwhile, on November 3, 1897, Captain Tilton of the whaler "Alexander" arrived in San Francisco and reported that eight whalers were fast in the ice in the neighborhood of Point Barrow. This report was confirmed on November 8 by the arrival of four more whaling vessels with a similar story. The attention of the president was called to the fact that these imprisoned men were in danger of starvation. To relieve matters, the cabinet decided to dispatch the cutter "Bear" to their rescue.
According to the plan formulated by the cabinet, the "Bear" was to proceed until it encountered ice; whereupon it was to land a party to go to Point Barrow and take charge of the stricken men. Since no practical plan could be made to enable the relief party to take provisions with them, it was determined to borrow a herd of reindeer owned by an Eskimo at Cape Nome, and a second herd owned by the American missionary station at Bering Straits. These herds were to be taken by the relief expedition to Point Barrow, and, so far as needed, were to be slaughtered for food. The department of the interior called for volunteers to man the "Bear," and Captain Francis Tuttle volunteered, as did the remainder of the crew. It was decided that the relief expedition should be under the command of Lieutenant Jarvis. The remainder of the relief party was to be made up of Second Lieutenant E. P. Bertholf and Dr. S. J. Call.
Negotiations between Lieutenant Jarvis and Antisarlook, owner of the herd at Cape Nome, proved difficult, since the herd represented a livelihood for the whole village. During the negotiations, the wife of Antisarlook aptly phrased the importance of the reindeer to the Eskimo by saying, "If we let our deer go what are we to do?" Finally the Eskimo decided to release his herd of 138 deer. To provide for the remainder of the village, Lieutenant Jarvis gave the wife of Antisarlook an order for food supplies on the stores.
Leaving Dr. Call to get Antisarlook's herd to Teller Station, Lieutenant Jarvis went to Cape Prince of Wales and had no trouble in getting the herd of 301 deer stationed there. In exchange for the two herds, the government was to pay back 652 deer the next year.
On February 2, 1898, the two herds of deer met. The enlarged herd now totaled 435 deer, with 18 broken to harness and reserved for transportation purposes. Lieutenant Jarvis decided to leave the herd in charge of Mr. Lopp and the Eskimo herders, and, accompanied by Dr. Call, he pushed
on to Point Barrow. On March 26 Jarvis saw the masts of the boats stranded west of Point Barrow, and on March 30 the herd arrived. There were one hundred men in the village besides the natives, and the reindeer were indeed a welcome sight to the nearly starved group. One hundred and eight reindeer were slaughtered to provide food for the party from the time the herd arrived until the "Bear" picked the sailors up on July 25. Finally the whole group was landed at Seattle on September 13, 1898, almost a whole year after their ordeal had begun.
The year 1898 was one of more than usual interest, for the government relief expedition in charge of Lieutenant Jarvis brought relief to the icebound whalers, and a governmental commission was sent to Norway for the purpose of procuring a colony of Laplanders and of purchasing a herd of reindeer trained to harness. The trained deer were to be used in transporting relief expeditions to destitute people in the mining regions of Alaska. In addition to these two events of major importance, the government established a new reindeer station at Unalaklik, sixty miles north of St. Michael.
It was necessary for the government to send Kjellmann to Norway in 1897 with four families of Laplanders whose terms of service had expired and who desired to return to their homeland with the money they had received for caring for the reindeer and training the Eskimo herders.
In December, 1897, accordingly, Kjellmann was in Norway. It was also in December, 1897, that Dr. Jackson received instructions from the secretary of war to proceed at once to Norway and Sweden to buy five hundred reindeer broken to harness, with harnesses, sleds, and drivers. To assist Dr. Jackson, the secretary appointed Lieutenant D. B. Devore of the United States Army to accompany him as disbursing officer.
Since Kjellmann was already in Norway, he was ordered to buy the reindeer. Dr. Jackson received the instructions from the war office, December 22, 1898, and immediately left for Europe. Leaving London on January 3, 1898, he went to Norway and met Kjellmann at Bosekop, near Hammerfest, the northernmost city in the world. Kjellmann reported that he had secured five hundred trained sled deer with sleds, harnesses, and fifty trained drivers. He had also ordered 250 tons of reindeer moss in Røros to be used as feed for the reindeer on the ocean trip and during the cross-country railroad trip after the United States had been reached.
Lieutenant Devore, meanwhile, had chartered the steamer "Manitoban" of the Allan Line of Glasgow, which was scheduled to sail for New York on February 4. There were fears that the trip would have to be delayed because of an Arctic blizzard which set in shortly before sailing. While the Americans dared not venture from their hotel in the driving storm, they noted the silent appearance of Lapp-driven herds of reindeer in the little town. The Laplanders had promised the delivery of the herds at that date and were not to be deterred by an Arctic storm. Dr. Jackson found to his amazement that practically all the reindeer had arrived and were ready for shipment on the day set for sailing.
The deer were lightered to the "Manitoban" and lodged below decks in the pens which had been constructed for them. In addition to the 539 reindeer purchased at an average of $10.00 each, there were 418 sleds purchased at $3.60 each, and 511 sets of harness, at $2.50 a set. A group of herders hired by Kjellmann accompanied the deer. The Lapp group was made up of forty-three men, sixteen women, and nineteen children; the Norwegian group consisted of fifteen men, three women, and seven children; and there were ten Finns --- all men. One of the Laplanders had received
a medal from the king of Norway for aid which he had given to Nansen when he crossed Greenland.
Upon arriving in America, the deer were shipped cross-country to Seattle and loaded on the bark "Seminole." In Seattle it was decided that it would be best to try to save the rapidly dwindling supply of moss for the sea voyage. Accordingly the animals were staked out in a Seattle park to eat grass. This change of diet upset them, and four died before the voyage to Alaska was begun. Eight more died after they went to sea.
With fifty-seven men to drive the deer, the "Seminole" arrived at Haines Mission on March 27, 1898. Here the animals were fed alfalfa, which weakened them greatly. The delay at the mission was quite unnecessary, but, since poor mail service held up orders, it was decided to wait. A heavy thaw set in two days after the "Seminole" landed at Haines Mission which made transportation almost impossible and the moving of the deer inadvisable. Weakened by the change of diet, large numbers of the animals died, so that, by September 1, there were but 144 of the 539 deer left.
In 1898 a number of the Lapp and Norwegian herders who had accompanied the herd from Norway got the gold fever, and success crowned the efforts of at least one of them. This man was Jafeth Lindebergh, a Norwegian who had asked to be released from his contract early in the summer. On July 31 he struck a very rich gold deposit, and, with John Brinterson and E. O. Linbom, his partners in the venture, he took out more than $200,000.00 worth of gold during the ninety working days of the summer. To Lindebergh goes the credit for discovering gold in the Cape Nome district. Following Lindebergh's phenomenal success, other herders requested that they be released from their contracts. This exodus from the ranks of the herders continued throughout the remainder of 1898 and in the early months of 1899.
These herders joined the miners in the Cape Nome and Golovin areas.
During the early years of the introduction of domesticated reindeer into Alaska, several private enterprises were organized. One of the enterprises was that of the Reindeer Transportation Company of Vancouver. This company shipped forty-seven reindeer from Norway on the steamship" Hecla." Seven of the deer died on the trip across the ocean, and twenty-nine more, in crossing the continent. Only six reached Alaska, and, of these, but two were alive by the time that Dawson was reached.
Another private enterprise, on more pretentious lines, was the one which was entered into by David O'Neil, an Arizona miner. Before going to the Yukon, O'Neil visited Norway to get a herd of deer for use in the mines. In eastern Lapland he could not find deer large enough to suit him, so he went across Norway and Sweden to Russia. He continued his quest for larger deer until he found the ones that he wanted in the region about Pechora Bay, in Arctic Russia. These deer weighed from 500 to 600 pounds and were trained in hauling and packing. O'Neil bought 2,000 deer at $12.00 each and started for Hamburg, Germany, with thirty-four selected animals. Leaving Hamburg, he crossed the Atlantic Ocean and the American continent. The mortality rate was so high, however, that when O'Neil finally reached Skagway he had but one deer, and that one died before it could be taken from the wharf.
Credit for the greatest private enterprise in the reindeer industry must go to Carl Lomen of Nome, who worked in conjunction with his father, Gudbrand J. Lomen, and his three brothers, Ralph, Alfred, and Harry. The Lomens were lured from Minneapolis to Alaska by the promise of gold in 1900. Arriving in Nome, the elder Lomen became
an outstanding leader in the legal profession. The boys entered various individual pursuits including mining, photography, and the operation of a trading post and a drugstore. At this time, the ownership of reindeer herds by white men was prohibited by governmental decree.
In 1914 Carl Lomen heard that a Laplander wanted to sell his reindeer and go back to his native land. Lomen and his three brothers bought the entire herd of 1,200 deer at the very first moment that they could lawfully own reindeer.
In 1915 the firm of Lomen and Company, Incorporated, with authorized capital stock of $750,000.00, wanted more deer. Unable to purchase more reindeer from Laplanders, they negotiated for the purchase of deer from the various missions which had been supplied with deer by the government. The Lomens have continued to buy deer whenever they have had the opportunity.
In 1920 the bank crash and general lowering of wartime prices forced the Lomens to seek additional financial backing on Wall Street. Carl Lomen finally succeeded in enlisting the aid of Arthur J. and Leonard D. Baldwin, New York capitalists.
The Lomen enterprise continued to expand, finally resulting in the formation of subsidiary corporations to run the different departments of the business. The functions of the various corporations were: to oversee the herds, to own corrals and storage plants, to own stores and lighterage facilities, to handle an experimental station, to own a half-interest in a dredge and mining enterprise, and to own and operate motor ships. With this well organized machine, the Lomens exported large quantities of dressed reindeer meat to the United States, each carcass bearing the tag "Lomenized Alaska." The condition of world finance in 1929, however resulting in lower-priced domestic meats, forced the
discontinuance of this trade. At present the Lomen holdings are estimated at 250,000 reindeer.
Noting the benefits derived by the Alaskan natives from the possession of reindeer, the Canadian government purchased 8,447 deer from the Lomen Reindeer Corporation, now the Northwestern Livestock Corporation, for introduction into northern Canada. These deer were driven from Kotzebue Sound in Alaska to the Mackenzie Delta, where 2,370 head of deer arrived on March 6, 1935. The trek was started in December, 1929. To care for the reindeer, the Canadian government imported three Lapp herders with their families from Norway.
The legality of the original purchase of reindeer by the Lomens has been a matter of dispute since the first herd was acquired. Natives, churches, and employees of the government have attacked the ownership on claims ranging from the original status of white ownership, to those of Lomen subsidization of native herds. However the Lomens have been carrying on extensive operations, running into millions of dollars, with no apparent doubt as to the legality of their operations; but legislation continues to appear regarding their status.
The most recent legislation came in 1937, at which time President Roosevelt signed a bill authorizing the appropriation of $2,000,000.00 to buy out the white owners of reindeer herds. Investigations showed that nearly all the deer owned by white men belonged to Lomen's Northwestern Livestock Corporation. It was the intention of the government then to turn the deer over to the natives. However sound this plan may have been, it did not materialize, for the government neglected to provide the department of the interior with the necessary money.
From 1892, when the government first recognized the possibilities of the introduction of reindeer into Alaska, until 1902, the government imported 1,280 reindeer into Alaska from Russia. In 1902, however, the Russian government passed an official ukase, forbidding any further exportation of reindeer from Siberia. It was therefore from the small number of animals imported before 1902 that one of Alaska's greatest industries sprang. Today there is no accurate figure of the number of reindeer in Alaska, although it has been variously estimated at from 500,000 to 1,500,000.
A fairly accurate estimate would put the number at approximately 1,000,000 animals. Since Alaska has facilities for the care of 4,000,000 reindeer, we may expect to see the industry grow until that figure is reached.
In 1925 General Greely expressed his conclusions regarding the reindeer industry by saying, "Rarely in history have the efforts of one man [Dr. Jackson] and an enterprise so small, wrought equal benefits to an ignorant and starving people, as in the transportation of Eskimo life from the primitive to the pastoral stage, from nomadic hunters to civilized man."
<1> Trumbull White, "Coming Storm over Alaska," in the New Outlook, 169:17 (August, 1933).
<2> Marius Hansome, "The Eskimo and the Fourth 'R,'" in Current History, 16:103 (April, 22 1922).
<3> Hansome, in Current History, 16:103.
<4> Hansome, in Current History, 16:105.
<5> White, in the New Outlook, 162: 16-23.
<6> Sheldon Jackson, Report on the Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska, 1893, p. 11 (52 Congress, 2 session, Senate Miscellaneous Documents, no. 22 -- serial 3064).
<7> Jackson, Introduction of Domestic Reindeer, 1893, p. 15.
<8> Jackson, Introduction of Domestic Reindeer, 1893, p. 14.
<9> White, in the New Outlook, 162: 22.
<10> Bureau of Education, Alaska Division, Report to the Department of the Interior, 1894, p. 11.
<11> Department of the Interior, Reports, 1904, appendix C, p. 114.
<12> Jackson, Introduction of Domestic Reindeer, 1893, p. 17.
<13> Sheldon Jackson, "Eighth Annual Report of the Introduction of Domestic
Reindeer into Alaska," in United States Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1898, vol. 2, p. 1773 (55 Congress, 3 session, House Documents--serial 3767).
<14> White, in the New Outlook, 162:17.
<15> Jackson, in Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1898, vol. 2, p. 1780-1786. 1
<16> Jackson, in Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1898, vol. 2, p. 1773.
<17> Jackson, in Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1898, vol. 2, p. 1787.
<18> Jackson, in Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1898, vol. 2, p. 1791.
<19> Jackson, in Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1898, vol. 2, p. 1792-1794.
<20> Sheldon Jackson, "Ninth Annual Report on the Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska," in United States Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1899, vol. 2, p. 1404 (56 Congress, I session, House Documents-- serial 3928).
<21> Jackson, in Commissioner of Education, Reports, 1898, vol. 2, p. 1777.
<22> White, in the New Outlook, 162: 18.
<23> Governor of Alaska, Report, 1917, p.
<24> Mrs. Elisabeth Sears, "Here's Where Santa Claus Gets His Reindeer!" in the American Magazine, 102: 2 (December, 192.
<25> White, in the New Outlook, 162: 20.
<26> Northwest Territories Administration, Canada's Reindeer Herd, 4 (Ottawa, 1938).
<27> White, in the New Outlook, 162: 18.
<28> Washington Offers Alaska's Natives a Gold Brick," in Newsweek, 10:13 (September 13,1937).
<29> Department of the Interior, "Bulletins," no. 766,792, p.2.
<30> White, in the New Outlook, 162: 17.