NAHA Header

NAHA Logo

Four Immigrant Shiploads of 1836 and 1837
By Henry J. Cadbury (Volume II: Page 20)

There will always be a special interest in the first groups of Norwegians that came as immigrants to America in the third and fourth decades of the nineteenth century. The premier place is held by the brave band of fifty-two, counting crew and children, who came on the sloop "Restaurationen" in 1825. Next to them the principal large contingents were those who came nearly a dozen years later in four vessels, the K¿hler brigs "Norden" and "Den Norske Klippe" in 1836 and the barks "®gir" and "Enigheden" in the following year. The uncertainty as to the personnel of these parties, especially of the famous sloop party, led the author to inquire from the federal authorities whether there were some records at New York Harbor concerning the vessels that brought them. The immigration records there prior to June 15, 1897, were destroyed in the Ellis Island fire of that date and they probably did not extend back before 1845. At the Customs House, however, the records of vessels arriving from foreign ports date back to 1795, and it was there that the lists and other data of arrivals given below were obtained. The passenger list of "Restaurationen" is missing, but one entry yields the following information: Sloop: Restoration, 60 tons; Master: Kelland; Port: Stavanger, Norway; Date: October 14, 1825. {1}

These lists should be of great interest not only for the thousands of descendants of the pioneers whose names they include, but also for all who appreciate the historical importance of the journeys. The lists are probably not quite infallible, but they are far more complete and accurate than the records based upon oral tradition, as some comparison will easily show. Several of the individual immigrants on the four boats were important figures in the early Norwegian migration and settlement.

In size and influence no other group of immigrants in the first generation of Norwegian immigration can compare with the 343 passengers of these four ships that constituted the bulk of the exodus of 1836 and 1837. The general information conveyed by the lists may be summarized as follows:

Name Date of Manifest Master No. of Pas. Tons
Brig "Norden" July 20, 1836 T¿nnes Willemsen 110 290
Brig "Den Norske Klippe" August 15, 1836 Peter Rolfsen 57 150
Bark "®gir" June 11, 1837 Christian K. Behrens 84 21-?
Brig "Enigheden" September 14, 1837 Jens Pedersen 91 -----

The total number of passengers would thus be 342, but one birth and five deaths on "Norden" on the voyage would change it to 338.{2} All the passengers but one (" ®gir" 73) were Norwegians.

Each of the lists has the following printed headings: "Names," "Age," "Sex," "Occupation," "The Country to which they severally belong," "The Country in which they intend to become inhabitants," and "Died on the voyage." Not all the columns have been copied in the case of every ship. Only "Norden" has entries under "Died on the voyage." The native country is indicated as Norway for all the passengers except one, A. C. Stange from Germany (" ®gir" 73) The destination is marked as United States for all on "Norden" and the" ®gir "and as Illinois for all on" Den Norske Klippe" and "Enigheden." The occupation list has not always been filled out with care; the entries under "Occupation'' are very incomplete for the two vessels last named and even the entries under "Sex" are often obscure and carelessly written. For convenience of reference, numbers have been prefixed to the names; indeed, this had already been done on the manifest of "Enigheden." It will be observed that the lists differ in the way names and kinship are designated, but fortunately the names appear to be arranged by families.

The lists are given in chronological order. No attempt has been made to give full or elaborate discussion, but each list is followed by brief notes, with references to a few standard works. No doubt those who are more conversant with Norwegian-American lore will find many other points of interest in the simple contemporary data here offered for study.

"NORDEN"

According to an interesting letter from Captain T¿nnes Willemsen to Elias Tastad, written in Bremerhaven on November 18, 1836, the voyage of "Norden," though comparatively brief, was cold, wet, and stormy, though no hurricane was encountered, {3} Many of the passengers caught severe colds, probably from lack of sufficient clothing, especially for the legs; at least, that is the explanation of the captain, who blames them for not heeding his advice in that regard and recommends that future immigrants provide themselves with wooden shoes. He refers also to the illness of nursing infants, incurred from their mothers, but, strangely enough, he makes no mention of the five deaths on the voyage noted in the manifest. On the contrary, he repeatedly speaks of the voyage as having gone very well.

Except for "Restaurationen," which made the voyage eleven years before, "Norden" was the first immigrant ship from Norway to reach America. As on the earlier occasion, the bright colors displayed as the immigrants landed in their best clothes made some impression at the harbor. This the captain mentions, as well as the admiration that the Americans felt for their quietness when compared with the Irish and the Germans.

Evidently Knud Anderson Slogvig .was the leader of this party, as he was of the exodus in general. Rasmus B. Anderson gives the date of departure from Stavanger as the first Wednesday after Pentecost and that of arrival at New York as July 12, 1836. {4} The later date of the ship's manifest is no real contradiction. The number of passengers on the brig, 110, approached very near the legal limit. It will be remembered that the American law permitted only two passengers for every five tons and that on that account "Restaurationen," with fifty-two passengers and forty-six tons, met trouble on its arrival in New York in 1825. Probably because Willemsen and Tastad knew of this difficulty with the authorities, Willemsen added in a postscript to his letter: "The ship was measured in New York 280 1/2 tons and so I can take 112 persons."

<DISTRICT OF NEW-YORK--PORT OF NEW-YORK.>
      <I,> Tonnes Willemsin <do solemnly, sincerely and truly> Swear <that the following List or Manifest of Passengers, subscribed with my name, and now delivered by me to the Collector of the Customs for the District of New-York, contains, to the best of my knowledge and belief, a just and true account of all the Passengers received on board the> Brig. Norden <whereof I am Master, from> Stavanger
      <Sworn to, the> 20 July <183>6<,> <So help me God.> <before me, >JAS CAMPBELL Dy Coll T¯NNES WELLEMSIN
<List or Manifest of all the Passengers taken on board the> Brig. Norden (Norwegian) <whereof> Tonnes Willemsin <is Master, from> Stavanger <Burthen> 290 [Portion crossed out].


Names
Age:
Yrs.   

Mos.   

Sex

Occupation
Died on
Voyage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100  
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
Knud Olsen Hetleved
Sigrid his wife
Ole his son
Johannes " Do
S¿ren " Do
Ellen Sophia his daughter
Malene " Do
Birthe Serina "Do
Jacob Jacobsen
Christine his wife
Lars Nielsen Hellen
Martha his wife
Samuel Enersen
Birtha his wife
Kirstina his daughter
Bertha Serina Do
Halvar Bergersen
Martha Olsdatter his wife
Peder Ornmundsen
Bertha Karina "wife
Hendrick Erichsen
Magle his wife
Johnas " son
Erich "Do
Peder "Do
Bertha "daughter
Walbarg "Do
Anton Osmundsen
Johannes Berecssen (?) Hetland
Bertha his wife
Lars "Son
Osmund (?) Endresen Tretland (?)   
Maria his Wife
Endre "Son
Reier "Do
Osmund "Do
Endre "Do
Peder Ormsen
John Jacobsen Hallen
Kirsten his wife
Hanna "daughter
Gurri "Do
Kirsten "Do
Helge "do
Jacob "Son
Marcus "Do
Isack Jacob Gudmunsen
Anna Olsdatter "Sister
Ole Marcussen
Anna Cathrina wife
Kleng Klensen
Inger his Wife
Marthe daughter
Gurri do
Ole Kleppe
Karen" Sister
Djorn Andressen Eike
Abel Catharina "Wife
Arenhaldus Andreas "Son
Augustinus Meldal Drun Do
Baar Hansen Boe
Helge his Wife
Hans "Son
Birtha "Daughter
Boel "Do
Anna Dorthea do
Anna do
Karen do
Holger Hansen Natvig (?)
Andreas Sigbjornsen
Marthe Govertsdatter
Ole Tensen
Anders Enersen
Oline his Wife
Ener "Son
Anderes "Do
Susanna "daughter
Lisbeth "Do
Iver R. Walde
Anna his Wife
Bertha "daughter
Cecille "do
Reier "Son
Karen Christophersdatter
Johan Gieruldsen
D. An¾statter widow
Aad her Son
Gudmund "Do
Anna "Daughter
Ellen Sophia Do
Bertha Serina Do
Knud A. Slogvig
Anderes A. Oskeland
Malene his Wife
Andereas "Son
Anna Larsdatter
T. Jacobsdatter
Lars Larsen Brimsoe
Jacob K. Djerke
Magle his Wife
Gjertrud "daughter
Britha "Do
Bagnhild "Do
Knud "Son
Jacob "do
John A. Kalleftad
Lars L. Narrevig
Ole C. L. Lomme
Ana Olsdatter
Mette Troelsdatter
43
43
12
6
--
15
8
3
25
22
27
22
49
51
13
8
32
31
32
20
44
36
10
7
--
14
3
24
30
27
1
38
33
11
7
4
1
33
55
50
24
20
14
7
18
10
20
18
46
44
27
24
3
3
25
36
34
26
4
2
48
41
12
15
10
8
6
5
35
26
26
25
45
47
15
9
14
11
35
26
7
5
1
24
21
40
15
9
15
13
6
38
34
30
3
18
18
24
47
44
12
9
5
3
10
34
--
56
29
30




6



6


6












6











































6


6


6







6




















6
Male
Female   
Male
Do
Do
Female
Do
Do
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Do
Do
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Do
Do
Female
Do
Male
Do
Female
Male
Male
Female
male
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
Female
Do
Do
Do
Do
male
Do
Do
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Do
Do
male
Female
male
Female
male
Do
Do
Female
male
Female
Do
Do
Female
Do
Male
Do
Female
male
Do
Female
male
Do
Female
Do
male
Female
Do
Do
male
Do
Do
Female
male
Do
Female
Do
Do
male
Do
Female
male
Female
Do
Male
Do
Female
Do
Do
Do
male
male
Do
Do
Do
Female
Do
Countryman







Countryman     

Countryman

Countryman



Countryman

Countryman

Countryman






Joiner
Countryman


Countryman





Countryman
Countryman







Countryman

Carpenter

Carpenter



Carpenter

Carpenter



Carpenter







Smith
Countryman
Maid Servant
Countryman
Countryman





Countryman





Shopman






Countryman
Countryman


Maid Servant
Maid Servant
Joiner
Countryman






Countryman
Countryman
Countryman
Maid Servant
Maid Servant

























Dead










Dead









Dead






Dead




























Dead




Born on the Passage

  Anderson Female

TINNES WILLEMSIN

The Hetletvedt (Hetleved) family (1-8) is dealt with by Anderson on pages 110-112 and 151.{5} Knud, the father, had two brothers, the slooper Ole Olson Hetletvedt and Lars Olson Hetletvedt. The ages given by Ole Olson (Olsen) the younger (3) agree with the manifest. Two of the children died in September, 1836, on their journey west. The parents died in the cholera epidemic in La Salle County, Illinois, in 1849. The names and dates given by Anderson are: (1) Knud Olson Hetletvedt, born in Stavanger Amt on April 21, 1793, died in Mission, Illinois, on August 12, 1849; (2) Siri (Sigrid) --not "Serina" as Anderson gives it on page 151 --born on January 13, 1793, died at Mission, Illinois, on August 3, 1849; (3) Ole Olson Hetlevedt, born in Ombo, Stavanger Amt, on April 23, 1824; {6} (4) John, born on April 8, 1830, died at Rochester, New York, on September 5, 1836; (5) Soren, born on December 30, 1835; (6) Sophia, born on July 18, 1821; (7) Malinda, born on May 12, 1827, died on Lake Michigan, September 10, 1836; and (8) Bertha, born on December 30, 1832. Norlie states on page 134 that an account of Knud and of his brother, the slooper, written by Knud's granddaughter, Mrs. C. J. Eastvold, was published in Visergutten (Canton, South Dakota), May 7, 1925.

Hellen (11), from which this surname is taken, is in Stavanger Amt. Anderson on page 135 quotes a letter written at Hellen on [May 14, 1836 which says: "A considerable number of people are now getting ready to go to America from this Amt. Two brigs are to depart from Stavanger in about eight days from now, and will carry these people to America, and if good reports come from them, the number of emigrants will doubtless be still larger next year."

Anderson on page 152 refers to. a Henrik Erikson Sebbe (Hendrick Erichsen, 21), who "came to America in 1836 with his two sons. They first settled in the Fox River settlement, but in 1848, they went to Salt Lake City, and there joined the Mormons." A daughter, Anna Hendrikson Sebbe, came from Norway in 1848 and married Lars Larson (Larsen) Brimsoe (98).

"Osmund Tutland from Hjelmeland in Ryfylke and wife Malinda from Aardal in Ryfylle [sic] and two children had come to Mission Township,, La Salle County in 1836 ....

Tutland became in 1854 the founder Of the Norwegian colony at Norway, Benton County, Iowa." So says Flom on page 356, but Tutland's identification with Osmund Endresen Tretland (32), whose wife was named Maria and who had three children when he arrived in America, can hardly be regarded as certain. {7} Does this name become the "Osmund Tuttle" who Anderson, on page 111, says was born in 1797, came from, Hjelmeland in Stavanger Amt in 1836, and died in 1880? The list at New York shows that the copyist started to write the last name with "He" and changed to "Tre" or possibly "Tu." It is notable that a second son was named Endre. It is usual to name one son, the oldest, for the father's father.

Information about "Kleppe" (55) and "Klep," which are Stavanger Amt place names, may be found in Norwegian works.

Bj¿rn Anderson Kvelve (Djorn Andressen Eike) and his wife and two sons (57-60) are the parents and brothers of Rasmus B. Anderson. He gives their names and ages on pages 155-170; Bj¿rn Anderson Kvelve, born in Vigedal parish, Stavanger Amt, on June 3, 1801, died at Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin, on August 10, 1850; Abel Catharine von Krogh, born in Sandeid parish on October 8, 1809, died in Worth County, Iowa, on October 31,1885; Arnold Andrew, born on April 9, 1832; Augustinus Meldahl Bruun, born in 1834, died in Wisconsin on August 6, 1850. The fact that twice in the names of this family and not elsewhere in the list the letter "B" .was misread as "D" suggests that the copy at the Customs House, written in a uniform hand, was derived from. an original list in which the names of each family were entered in different handwriting, presumably that of the literate member of the family.

Anderson on page 150 says that Andrew Anderson Aasen (Anders Enersen, 73), his wife Olena (Oline, 74), a son Einar (Ener, 75), and two other sons and two daughters came with his, Anderson's, parents on "Norden." Olena, he says, was the sister of Nels Nelson Hersdal, the slooper. The family lived two years with the latter at Kendall and then went to Illinois. Anderson mentions five children at Kendall; the manifest, which spells the name "Enerson" and gives no final name, lists only four children. It seems probable, however, that the families are the same. It is possible, though doubtful, that the infant born on the voyage (111 ) was a fifth child.{8} There is a picture of Einar (Ener, 75) Anderson Aasen in Anderson opposite page 150. Flom on page 93 says: "John Hidle from Stavanger County, Norway, also emigrated in 1836, coming direct to La Salle County [Illinois]. In 1838 he settled at Lisbon, Kendall County.

. . . Hidle, who wrote his name Hill in this country, married Susanna Anderson [77], daughter of Andrew Anderson; she was fourteen years old when her parents came to America, and is still living [1909], at Morris, Illinois, with her daughter Mrs. Austin Osmond." The name "John Hidle" or "Hill" does not appear on any of the four manifests here presented.

The name "Walde" (79) may have come from "the farm V¾lde in Vats Parish, Stavanger Amt," mentioned by Anderson on page 219. As a personal name it is also spelled "Valder."

"Enigheden" carried several passengers named Walde and one named Velde.{9)

Knud A. Slogvig (92) is said to have been one of the sloopers, though there are reasons to doubt this. In any case, he had been in America for some years and had returned to Norway not before 1835. It is said that he spread the "America fever" and was thus responsible for the exodus of 1836. Because he and Anders Askeland (93) stayed in New York after the arrival of "Norden," the rest of the party proceeded without leadership to Rochester. To other problems concerning Slogvig this list, which represents him as traveling to America without a wife, adds another, since tradition implied that when he returned to Norway he married a sister of the brothers Olson Hetletvedt.{10}

The juxtaposition in the list of the Askeland (Oskeland) family (93-95) to Knud Anderson Slogvig (92) is no accident. Captain Willemsen's letter tells that three weeks before the arrival of "Norden," Anders Askeland's wife gave birth to a baby girl, probably the infant given in the list as born on the passage (111), and that Knud remained with them in New York instead of going forward with the main party.{11} This family is to be distinguished from Anders Enersen's family (73-78). Anderson on page 186 also mentions Anders Askeland as one of those who in 1837 went with Kleng Peerson to found a colony in Shelby County, Missouri, and later returned to La Salle County, Illinois. Flom on page 125 and Norlie on page 156 also mention Anders, or Andrew, Askeland as among the first of the Shelby County settlers.

Lars Larsen Brimsoe (98) is named by Anderson on pages 151-153 as among those who migrated in 1836. Among other information, Anderson says that Brimsoe was born on October 14, 1812, that on January 1, 1849, he married Anna Hendrikson Sebbe from Hjelmeland, a daughter of Hendrick Erichsen (21), and that he died on September 26, 1873. Anderson gives his picture opposite page 151.

Lars L(arsen) Narrevig (l07) was perhaps a brother of Ingebret Larson Narvig, whom Anderson on page 179 refers to as a Quaker from Tysver, who came from Norway to Boston in 1831, thence went to Kendall, and later to Michigan, where, it is said, he had two brothers. The passenger list of the "®gir," however, includes a K. H. Nordviig (68), and that of "Enigheden" has a Lars Larsen Narrwig (4).{12}

If Knud Anderson Slogvig (92) married a sister of the Olson Hetletvedt brothers, not in Norway but in America, Ana Olsdatter (l09) may have been the woman he married. Another younger woman of the same name is given in the list (48) as a sister (?) of Isack Jacob Gudmunsen.

Metha (Metta, Mette) Trulsdatter (Troelsdatter) Hille (Hill) (110) was an early convert to Quakerism mentioned in the records at Oslo and in the Larson correspondence.{13}

The Anderson infant (111) is probably the girl "Pige" mentioned by Captain T¿nnes Willemsen as born to the Anders Askeland family (93-95) three weeks before the arrival in New York.{14} The infant died in a hospital in New York.

"DEN NORSKE KLIPPE"

"Den Norske Klippe" was the smallest of the four vessels and had the shortest list of passengers. It is said to have been, like "Norden," a K¿hler brig and to have belonged to the Kielland Company, a noted house of merchants at Stavanger. It seems probable, however, that the K¿hler firm really owned the vessel and arranged for the transportation of passengers, while the Kiellands at most consigned freight upon it. Lars Larsen, writing the next summer to adjust some money matters connected with "Norden," asked Elias Tastad to go to K¿hler about them.{15} Though the master's name is given three times on the manifest and five times in the indexes of arrivals at New York, it is difficult to make sure of the surname. The New York shipping news published his name as "Rolfsen," which is probably right, though the other data in its notice do not commend themselves as reliable. {16} The columns under "Sex" and "Occupation" are marked collectively "male" and "countryman," with the exception of 1, "shoemaker," 2, "farmer," and 49, "Turner." A few of the passengers are mentioned by historians as having arrived in 1836 but apparently no one has previously been identified as a passenger on "Den Norske Klippe," nor has the total number of passengers been known.

<DISTRICT OF NEW-YORK -- PORT OF NEW-YORK>
      <I,> Peter Rolfsen <do solemnly, sincerely, and truly> swear <that the following List or Manifest of Passengers, subscribed with my name, and now delivered by me to the Collector of the Customs for the District of New-York, contains, to the best of my knowledge and belief, a just and true account of all the Passengers received on board the> Brig Nortske Klippe <whereof I am Master, from> Stavanger 
      Sworn <to the> 15 Augu[s]t <18> 36 <, before me,> J H BLEECKER [?] Dy Coll
<List or Manifest of all the Passengers taken on board the> Nortske Klippe <whereof> Peter Rolofsen <is Master, from> Stavanger <burthen> 150 <tons.>

PEDER ROLFSEN

 


Names
Age:
Yrs.    

Mos.   

Sex    

Occupation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
Martin Pobetz (?) Mohn (?)
Johnas Nielson
Erich Johannessen Haase
Ingebord Haase
Ommund Endressen Hodnefield  
Lars Olsen Boe
Cecilia Hallingstad
Tjerran O Hallingstad
Lars Larsen Sanden¾s
Martha Sanden¾s
Lars Sanden¾s
Fosten Sanden¾s
Johannes Sanden¾s
Fosten J Sanden¾s
Bixgitha Sandemes
Swent K. Lothe
Ragnhild Lothe
Knud Lothe
Johanness Lothe
John J. Age
Torbjore Age
Halstein Age
Herborg Age
Helge Watnem
Karl Watnem
Lars Watnem
Ole Watnem
Peder Watnem
Thormond Watnem
Sophia Watnem
Britha K Watnem
Jacob J Gesmaroig
Malina Gesmaroig
Rasmus Gesmaroig
Jacob Gesmaroig
Peder A Fesen
Ansten E Maage
Halstein T Meehas
Gurri Mehaas
Rasmus Mehaas
Sidseller Mehaas
Ole T. Gismerierz
Sigtreed Gismerierz
Elizabeth do
Neils do
Hannah do
Saml P Custod
Lars H Aadland
Edward A Koben
Toleff J Grodem
Thorbjen T Honde (?)
Thorbjen N Klonning (?)
Osmund Olsen
Ole A Hille
Tormes Tollevson (?)
Sikke Svensdatter
Oline Johndatter
27
33
33
27
30
29
27
30
41
38
11
08
4
67
67
39
41
04
01
41
43
11
4
42
32
7
5
2
2
4

45
50
12
10
24
24
32
29
2
4
50
50
19
14
14
25
20
44
33
22
22
19
27
30
18 (?)
20












6





6











8 days







6














6


male
do
shoemaker
farmer
)
)
)
)
)
)
Countryman
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
Countryman
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
Turner
)
)
)
Countryman
)
)
)
)


Erich Johannessen Haase (3) and Ingebord Haase (4) are almost certainly the Erik and Ingeborg Johnson S¾vig mentioned by Anderson on pages 149 and 169. According to Anderson, Erik Johnson S¾vig was born in 1803 and came to America in 1836 from Kvinhered Parish in Norway. He died in the Fox River settlement in 1840, leaving two children, John, who later lived in Wyoming, and Anna Bertha (Betsy Ann), who became the wife of John J. Naset in Christiana, Dane County, Wisconsin. Flom on pages 175-179 gives a fuller account of him under the name "Erick Johanneson Savik." His widow married Amund Anderson Hornefjeld (Ommund Endressen Hodnefield, 5). She was born on November 22, 1802, and died on November 7, 1884.

Ommund Endressen Hodnefield (5) is most probably the Amund Anderson Hornefjeld of whom Anderson gives much information. He was born on the island of Moster near Stavanger on February 16, 1806. He married Ingeborg Johnson (Ingebord Haase, 4) in La Salle County, Illinois, in 1841 and settled with her and her two children at Albion, Dane County, Wisconsin, where he died on March 18, 1886. Portraits of Amund Anderson and his wife are given by Anderson opposite page 167. The parish registers printed by Flom contain the entry, on page 315, "Amund Anderson [came from] Stavanger 1836 [.wife] Ingeborg."

Lars Olsen Boe (6) may be Lars B. Olson, who Anderson on page 153 says came to America in 1836, settled in La Salle County, Illinois, and later moved to Iowa, where he died. Flom on page 93 says that a Lars B¿, who came to America in 1836, lived and died in La Salle County. A letter of Margaret Larson, written in July, 1838, refers to a Lars Boe, Who apparently was then about to return to Stavanger.{17}

It is natural to suppose that the name "Fosten" (12, 14) should be "Tosten."

Flom on page 95 says that "Svein Knutson Lothe [Swent K. Lothe, 16], who emigrated with wife and two children from Hardanger in 1836, was from the Parish of Ullensvang." As Svein Knutson Lothe he is listed as a resident of Chicago in the directory of 1839, the. first directory published there, according to Flom on page 231.

Flom on page 95 refers to a Jon Jonson Aga (John J. Age, 20) and his wife and two children as having come from the same province and Parish, Ullensvang, from which Lothe (16) came. But the three other persons whom Flom names as having come from Hardanger that year do not appear to have come on either of the K¿hler brigs.

In speaking of the arrival at Chicago in 1837 of the passengers on "Enigheden," Malinda Nelson, according to a statement by Anderson on page 229, said that the new immigrants engaged Helge Vatname (Watnem, 24) and Samuel Peerson (47?) to take them to Norway, Illinois. Evidently the two were Norwegians who had already established themselves at Norway and had acquired "Hoosier wagons," which they used for this journey.

There is no reason why Halstein Mehaas (Meehas, 38) may not be another of the few Norwegians mentioned by historians as living in America before 1837. Flom on page 94, following Anderson and Knud Langeland, speaks of a Halstein Torison (Torrison or T¿rison) as the first Norwegian resident of Chicago. "He was from Fjeldberg in S¿ndhordland," says Flom, "and he came to Chicago with wife and children in October, 1836."

It seems reasonable to identify Samuel P. Custod (47) with Samuel Peerson mentioned in connection with Helge Vatname (Watnem, 24).

At first glance number 55 on the manuscript list appears to be "Tormes Tollerson," but it should doubtless be read as "Tonnes Tollevson." Anderson on page 166 says, "This T¿nnes Tollefson came from Klep Parish, Stavanger Amt, in one of the K¿hler brigs in 1836." Flom on page 204 says that T¿nnes Tolleivson, or Tollefson, came from J¾deren to America in 1839. Both historians locate him after that date in the Jefferson Prairie settlement, Boone County, Illinois, and refer to his wife, Anna. (" ®gir" 43). He died in 1893.

"®GIR" {18}

There is some disagreement in the dates of departure and arrival of the "®gir" given by historians. Anderson on page 198 says: "'®gir' was eight weeks in crossing the Atlantic. In mid-ocean it collided with an American packet, but no damage was done "; and of Mons Adland (Aadland. 24), one of the passengers, he says on page 285, "He left Bergen, Norway, April 7, 1837, arriving in New York about June 12." Norlie on page 137 follows the mistaken tradition that the "®gir" sailed on July 4, suggested, probably, by the traditional sailing date of "Restaurationen," which is also questioned.{19} N. Nelson gives April 7, 1837, as the sailing date, but for the arrival he gives June 9, a date. supported by a notice in the marine news of the New York Evening Star, June 10, 1837.{20}

It is interesting to compare the list with the partial lists of passengers on the "®gir" given by Anderson on pages 197 and 198 and Flom on pages 100 and 101. Following Knud Langeland's account, Anderson mentions the following heads of families: N. P. Langeland (77), Mons Aadland (24), Nils Fr¿land (33), Anders Nordvig (15), Anders Rosseland (41?), Thomas Bauge (7), Ingebrigt Brudvig (1), and Thorbj¿rn Veste; and the following unmarried men: D¿vig (12 ?), Rosseland (46), Bauge, Fr¿land (38), Nordvig (68), Hisdal (32), T¿sseland (39), and Ole Rynning (72). Flom repeats all these except the two Rosselands and adds the following names: Nils L. J¿rdre and his wife and six children and Peder J. Maurset and his wife and child from Hardanger; Amund Rosseland and his wife and three children (41-45), Lars G. Skeie and his wife and two children (48-51), Sjur E. Rosseland (46), and Svein L. Midthus (47) from Vik¿r; and Halle V¾te and his wife and grown daughter, Odd J. Himle, Kolbein O. Saue, Styrk O. Saue, Nils L. Bolstad (13), Baard Haugen, John H. Bj¿rgo (14), and Ole Dyvik (12).

It will be seen that, while there is a variety of spelling, the primary list used by Anderson and Flom is generally accurate, but that, while the additions by Flom contain two groups in agreement with the passenger list, 41-51 and 12-14, he wrongly infers that all these persons were married when they crossed and he includes several names that do not belong in this party at all. The latter part of Flom's list is identical with the list of names that Anderson, on pages 328 and 329, gives of emigrants from Voss in 1837, but Anderson does not claim, as does Flom, that they came on the "®gir" or that they were all married when they came. He says that Stark Olson Saue was married in America.

<DISTRICT OF NEW-YORK--PORT OF NEW-YORK.>
      <I,> Christian K Beherns <do solemnly, sincerely, and truly> swear <that the following List or Manifest of Passengers, subscribed with my name, and now delivered by me to the Collector of the Customs for the District of New-York, contains, to the best of my knowledge and belief, a just and true account of all the Passengers received on board the [blank in MS] whereof I am Master, from> Bergen
Sworn <to the> 10th June <18> 37 <,> <So help me God.>
     
<Before me,> J H BLEECKER [?] D Col C. K. BEHRENS. 
<List or Manifest of all the Passengers taken on board the> Barque Aegier <whereof> C K Beherns <is Master, from> á Bergen <burthen> 210 8/95 <tons.>


Names
Age:
Yrs.    

Mos.    

Sex

Occupation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
Ingebrigt Nielsen Brudwig    
S Monsdatter
J J Dahle
A Sjursdatter
A Dahle
J J Dahle
T N Buge
S. Johannesdatter
N Thomassson
S Johannasdatter
H N Dahlseider
O A Dyvigen
N L Rolstad
J H Biorge
A H Nordvig (?)
M. Knudsdatter
H. Andersdatter
M Andersdatter
S Andersdatter
M Andersdatter
K Andersdatter
H Anderson
K Anderson
M K Aadland
E Knudsdatter
M Monsdatta
B do
K Monsen
T do
S Monsdatter
P Monsen
O H Hisdahe
N L Froland
A Vilhelmsdatter
B Nielsdatter
L Nielson
V Nielson
P L Froland
K V Tysland
L Shudalsness
A E Rosseland
G Ellingsdatter
A Amands
E Amundsen
E Amundsen
S E Rosseland
S L Mithus
L G Scheie
K Ellingsdatter
G Larsdatter
A Larsdatter
V L Schultz
S E Trangereide
S Andersdatter
E Samuelsen
M B Bystolen
H A Saboe
T Johannesdatter
A M Halvorsdatter
A do
B do
T do
H Halvorsen
A Halvorsen
N O Nordhienes
T A Ovrevieg
T A Birkeland
K H Nordviig (?)
N K Vettesloe
B Aamundsdatter
E Nielsdatter
O Rynning
A C Stange
J J Skoerping (?)
J F Voltziem
K J Alne
N P Langeland
M Nielsdatter
N Nielsen
P Nielsen
A Nielsdatter
B Nielsdatter
A Nielsdatter
M Nielsdatter
48
40 
40 
33 


61 
61 
27 
52 
36 
33 
36 
32 
45 
38 
19 
15 
12 
10 



44 
39 
13 
11 
10 



25 
41 
39 



34 
28 
27 
46 
40 
18
13 
5
31 
34 
38 
30 


23 
27 
23 

29 
45 
46 
19 
16 
12 


21 
34 
21 
25 
20 
30 
28 

27 
33 
38 
15 
26
41 
39 
12 

14 
10 

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
6
6
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
6
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
6
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
6
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
6
Male
Female    
Male
Female
"
Male
"
Female
Male
Female
Male
"
"
"
"
Female
"
"
"
"
"
Male
"
"
Female
"
"
Male
"
Female
Male
"
"
Female
"
Male
"
"
"
"
"
Female
"
Male
"
"
"
"
Female
"
"
Male
"
Female
Male
"
"
Female
"
"
"
"
Male
"
"
"
"
"
"
Female
"
Male
"
"
"
Female
Male
Female
Male
"
Female
"
"
"
Farmer
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"


C. K. BEHRENS.

Ingebrigt Brudvig (Brudwig, 1), according to Anderson on pages 199-201, was one of the explorers and founders of the ill-fated settlement at Beaver Creek, Iroquois County, Illinois.

Anderson on page 295 writes: "One of the oldest settlers in Muskego [Waukesha County, Wisconsin] was John J. Dale [J. J. Dahle, 3]. He was born in Bergen Stift, Norway, in August, 1795, and came to America in the same ship with Ole Rynning in 1837. He first settled in the Fox River settlement, and came to Muskego in 1842, where he died in 1882. Anna, his wife, died in Illinois in 1839."

Ole Dyvik (O. A. Dyvigen, 12), is mentioned by Anderson on pages 328 and 329 as having migrated from Voss, but he did not know what became of him. It is probably he who appears in Anderson's list for the "®gir" as a bachelor named D¿vig.{21}

Presumably N. L. Rolstad (13) is Nils Larsen Bolstad, a Vossing frequently mentioned by Anderson and Flom as one o£ the first settlers in Koshkonong, or Deerfield, Wisconsin. {21} According to Anderson on pages 336 and 345, he married Anna, a sister of Gunnul Vindeg. The church register given by Flom contains the following entry on page 319: "Niels Larsen Bolstad [came from] Vos [in] 1837 [wife] Anne [children] Lars, Ingeborg."

Probably I. H. Biorge (14) is John Haldorson Bj¿rgo, frequently mentioned by Anderson with Bolstad (Rolstad, 13) as one of the first settlers in Koshkonong. Svein Nilsson also mentions John Haldorson Bj¿rgo as an early settler in Koshkonong.{22}

Anderson, on page 284, says that Anders Nordvig (5) settled in Beaver Creek and died there.{23}

According to Anderson on pages 227 and 284, Magdalena Nordvig (M. Knudsdatter, 16), the .wife of Anders Nordvig (15), was a sister of Knud Langeland, the journalist, and of Mons Aadland (24). After her husband's death she "moved to the Fox River settlement, where she died about the year 1892, over 90 years old."

One of the daughters of Anders Nordvig (15) with the initial "M" ( 18 or 20) is presumably the daughter Malinda, who Anderson on page 285 says was the wife of Iver Lawson, "who was a prominent Norwegian real estate owner in Chicago, and the mother of [the late] Victor F[reemont] Lawson, the well known owner of the Chicago Record and News." Norlie on page 139 and Flom on page 112 also mention Malinda Nordvig as the wife of Larson and the mother of Victor F. Lawson.

Flom on page 113 says, "Another daughter [of Anders Nordvig, 15], Sarah [S. Andersdatter, 19] (born 1824), married a Mr. Darnell, a pioneer of Benton County, Iowa, in 1854." Anderson on page 227 mentions "Mrs. Sarah Darnell, of Sandwich, Ill.," as a daughter of Anders Nordvig.

Evidently M. K. Aadland's (24) full name was Mons Knudson Aadland. Flom on page 162 says he was a nephew of Nils P. Langeland (77). His family is discussed at length by Anderson on pages 225 and 284-290, and his photograph faces page 287. Anderson states that he was born on April 14, 1793, left Bergen on April 7, 1837, and arrived in New York about June 12 and in Chicago a month later. He then went to Beaver Creek and finally to Racine County, ,Wisconsin, where he died on April 25, 1869. These data suggest comparison with the entry of the manifest.

E. Knudsdatter (25) is given by Anderson on page 286 as "Ellen (Thompson) Adland," and she is said to have died two years before her husband (24). Six of their children grew to maturity and three were living in 1895 (?) --Knud (28), Thomas (29), and Martha (26?).

According to Anderson on page 225, "a daughter [of Mons Aadland, 24] Martha [M. Monsdatta, 26] . . . married the Lutheran minister, Rev. A. C. Preus, who succeeded Rev. Dietrichson on Koshkonong in Wisconsin, and later returned to Norway, where he died. The widow, Mrs. Preus, is still living [1895] at Horten in Norway."

Anderson on pages 285--290 quotes a sketch of Thomas, son of Mons Aadland (24), who must be T. Monsen (29), though the sketch says that he was born on August 12, 1831.

For O. H. Hisdahe (32), Anderson on page 198 gives "Hisdal," with no initials.

The later history of Nils Fr¿land (33) is given by Anderson on page 223. He died in 1873.

Anderson on page 223, writing of a visit he paid near Norway, La Salle County, Illinois, in August, 1894, says: "I found Nils Fr¿1and's widow, Anna [A. Vilhelmsdatter, 34], still living. She was then 95 years old, being born March 24, 1798."

According to Anderson on page 178, "Lars Fr¿land [L. Nielson, 36] came with his father, Nels Fr¿land, in 1837" to La Salle County. Norlie on page 139 says, "Lars Fruland, born March 15, 1831, is still alive [1925] and resides at Newark, Illinois, spry as a man of 60, in spite of his 96 years of hard labor.''

Flom on page 336, writing of the settlement in Spring Prairie, Dane County, Wisconsin, says: "In the spring of 1846 Peder Fr¿1and [P. L. Froland, 38] who had come to America in 1837 came up. there from La Salle County "; and on page 334 he says, "In 1847 Peder Fr¿1and . . . and Ole Jone, both from Hardanger, became the founders of the Hardanger Settlement there."

K. V. Tysland (39) may be the unmarried man on the "®gir" named T¿sseland, whose initials historians do not give. Or perhaps it is Knut W. Tysland, who, according to Flom on page 355, located at Newark, Illinois, in 1838, or the Knut Tysland of Beaver Creek mentioned by Anderson on page 368.

Flom on page 100 refers to the eleven persons numbered to 51 on the list and implies that they came from Vik¿r. He gives some of the names more fully than does the manifest.

Anderson on pages 197 and 342-345 correctly speaks of Amund (Anderson) Rossaland, as well as Anders Rosseland. On 166 and following pages he gives an account of Amund Rossaland, his wife (G. Ellingsdatter, 42), his sons Elling and Endre (E. Amundsen, 44, 45), and his daughter Anna (A. Amands, 43). Anna married T¿nnes Tollefson (" Den Norske Klippe" 55).

Sjur E. Rosseland (46) and Svein L. Midthus (Mithus, 47) are mentioned by Flom on page 100 as emigrants from Vik¿r.

Anderson on pages 166 and 343 mentions Lars Scheie (48) and his family (49-51) in connection with Amund Anderson, with Rossaland (41) and his family, and with Bj¿rn Anderson (" Norden" 57) and his family. On page 344 he gives the daughters' names as "Geri" and "Anna." On page 175 Flom, following Anderson, gives "Lars Scheie," but on page 100 he writes "Lars G. Skeie."

Anderson mentions frequently Mange Bottolfson Byst¿l (en) (M. B. Byst¿len, 56). The land records quoted by Anderson on page 354 spell the name "Magany Buttelson." He settled in Wisconsin.

In the case of K. H. Nordviig (68) we find again a name mentioned by the historians, though they give no initial for this unmarried Nordvig.

Ole Rynning (72) from Trondhjem Amt, a college graduate, was one of the more influential members of the party.{24}

A. C. Stange (73) from Germany was the only passenger not from Norway.

Nils P. Langeland (77) settled with his family in Detroit, according to Anderson on page 224. Flom on pages 97 and 99 speaks of him as a school teacher from Samnanger, already an elderly man, whose work for popular education had been thwarted by the clergy. It is said that he was influenced to emigrate by a visit to Knud Slogvig (" Norden" 92) and that he was largely influential in leading his own neighbors to migrate in 1837.

"ENIGHEDEN"

The name of this bark is spelled "Enigheden" in the manifest, dated September 14, 1837. The tonnage is not given Its ninety-one passengers are numbered on the left margin of the manifest. Flom on page 96 and Norlie on page 137 give ninety-three as the number of passengers. Of the voyage and of the first part of the passengers' experience in America some information is available. Anderson gives an account on page 196, and on 229 and following pages he quotes an account from the lips of Malinda Nelson (nee Danielson, 86), who came over in the ship at the age of ten. The voyage, she says, occupied eleven weeks and three days.{25} From New York the immigrants went up the Hudson to Albany, thence by the canal to Rochester, where they stopped several days, thence to Buffalo, and then on by the lakes to Chicago. From Chicago many of them went immediately to Norway, Illinois. Of their stay at Rochester a few sentences from a letter of Martha Larson, dated October 11, 1837, give a clear picture: "About two weeks ago there arrived from ninety to a hundred people. They stayed at our house and my brother's [Ole Johnson Eie's] house about a week, and we furnished meals for nearly all of them. Most of them have now gone to Illinois. Knurl Eye [Knud Olsen Eie, 23] with family and Endre Aragebo [Endre Osmunden Aagagerh, 69?] were the last to leave."{26}

Of the following list several persons have already been definitely known by historians as passengers on "Enigheden." Flom, for example, following Anderson, on page 96 mentions as among its passengers the persons numbered on the list 1, 5, 23, 38, 43, 84, and their families. But, though assigned to "Enigheden," neither Thomas A. Thompson, mentioned by Anderson on page 227 and by Flom on page 114, nor Hans Barlien, whom Flom names on page 108 and Norlie on page 138, can be identified with names on the manifest, not to mention other immigrants assigned to this year. On page 96 Flom speaks of the passengers as "for the most part from Tysv¾r and Hjelmeland, and Aardal in Ryfylke, from the city of Stavanger, and from Egersund."

<DISTRICT, OF NEW-YORK --- PORT OF NEW-YORK.>
      <I,> Jens Pedersen <do solemnly, sincerely, and truly> swear <that the following List or Manifest of Passengers, subscribed with my name, and now delivered by me to the Collector of the Customs for the District of New-York, contains, to the best of my knowledge and belief, a just and true account of all the Passengers received on board the> Barque Enigheden<whereof I am Master, from> Stavanger [blank in MS] <to the> 14 Sept <18> 37 <,> J. PEDERSEN
      Before me, <JAS CAMPBELL> Dy Col
<List or Manifest of all the Passengers taken on board the>Brig Enigheten <whereof> Jens Pederson <is Master, from>Stavanger <burthen> [blank in MS] <tons.>


Names
Age:
Yrs.

Mos.   

Sex

Occupation









10   
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90
91 
Osten Knudsen Espeland
Siri Houlsdatter
Swent Ostensen
Lars Larsen Narrwig
Hans Olsen Velde
Berthe Olddatter do
Ole Hansen d
Jacob Pertersen Eike
Siri Jonas Datter do
Bertha Christendatter
Karin Christendatter
Forber Christendatter
Peder Jacobsendatter
Niels Olsen Osterlen (?)
Elisabeth Beerdatter
Elen Neilsdatter do
Berthe do
Oele Nielsen
Enig do
Neils Tobias do
Berent Elias do
Magreth Meve Nielsdatter
Knud Olsen Eie
Merthe Eie
John Knudsen
Ole do
Andreas do
Elen Knudsdatter
Samuel Thoralsen Tjiel
Aadne Biornsdatte Bratted
Borgilde Petterdatter
Raier Olsen Oserhaus
Osmund Danielsen Walde
Inger Reier Datter do
Danielsen Walde
Peter Jacobsen do
Siri Osmund Datter
Christen Danielsen Walde
Merthe Thordatter do
Daniel Christian do
Jacob do
Christen do
Ole Thorbiorns
Osmund Guterensen (?) Ahling
Berthe Mathias do
Erik Osmond do
Guttorn do
Osmundir (?) do
Merye Osmund Datter
Anne
Guttron (?) Erichsen Overzland (?)   
Thorborn Torsen Magreth
Bion Jorgensen Hellestad
Ragnilde Olsdatter
Ane
Ane Lovdatter Shenbove (?)
Halvor Halversen
Elen Halvordatter
J. J Johanisen
Hewis (?) Ostedahl
Rasmus Dahl (?)
Even Johansen Me(sk?)eeveg
Malene Johndatter
Johannes Evenson
Jane do
Even do
Siri Evendatter
Inger Evensdatter
Endre Osmunden Aagagerh
Stine Olsdatter
Ase do
Siri do
Magdale Knudsdatter
Ole Endersen
Bolte Randine Endersedatter
Herman Osmunde Auga(s?)
Barbro Halverdatter Breth
Ole Pierson
Ane Baersen
Soren Oelsen
Atleethe Oldendatter
Rachel do
Lars Pedar Reierssoen
Knud Danielson Wallen
Siri Oldatter
Malene Danielsdatter
Daniel Knudzen
Aase Knudsdatter
Ane do
Bergethe Merie Cederberg
Matheas Osmund
22
18
1/2
21
23
22
1/4
33
39
14
12
8
1
50
40
18
16
13(?)
9
7
4
1
50
(?)
9
6
3
1 1/2
22
20
48
60
39
26
3 1/2
17
6
42
29
14
11
2 1/2
17
49
39
11
10
6
9
3
24
28
45
35

40
9
12
28
20
20
49
30
5 1/2
4
1 3/4
15
13
33
40
44
33
30
3 1/2
5
20
28
33
31
6
3
1
24
36
33
10
6
4
1
29
1
male
female
male
male
male
female
--------    
male
do
do
do

"
male
male
female
do
male
"
"

female
male
female
male
male
male
female
male
female
male
male
male
"
"

do
male
female
"
--------
"
male
male
female
male
do
do
female

male
female



male
female
do
male

male
male
do
do
do
do
do
do
male
female
do
male
do
do

male
male
do
do

do

do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
farmer


do
do


do
do

do

do
do
do

do
do
do
do

do
Seaman
do




farmer
do
do
do
do
do
do


do
do
"

do
farmer
do
do





do
do




do
do
Portrait-painter
blacksmith
shoemaker
farmer
do
do

do
do
do
Glazier
do
do

do


do

do
do

do

porter
farmer
do

do
do
do
servant
do


J. PEDERSEN

According to Anderson on page 219, Osten Espeland (1) came from Hjelmeland in Norway. At Detroit he left most of the other immigrants, went by rail to Adrian, 'Michigan, and settled near there in Lenawee County. Later he moved to the Fox River settlement. After his death his widow remarried and was still living in 1895.

Lars Larsen Narvig (Narrwig, 4) was perhaps a brother of Ingebrigt Larsen (Ingebret Larson) Narvig, a Quaker who came from Tysv¾r in 1831 and who is frequently mentioned by Anderson. Two of Ingebrigt's brothers, according to Anderson on page 220, were for a time with him, Osten Espeland (1) and Hans Valder (Hans Olsen Velde, 5), at the settlement in Lenawee County, Michigan. It is possible that A. H. Nordvig (" ®gir" 15) was the other brother in spite of the initial "H." There is also another Nordvig on the lists, K. H. Nordviig (" ®gir" 68). Flom on page 101 gives Ingebrigt's surname as "Nordvig." But there is another Lars L. Narrevig ("Norden" 107), unless we suppose that he was the same individual and had returned to Norway.

Anderson gives a biographical sketch of Hans (Olsen) Valder (V¾lde, Velde, 5) on pages 219-222, with a photograph opposite page 219. He was born at Vrelde in Vats Parish, October 18, 1813, and taught school at Tysver. He, like Espeland (1) and Narvig (4), did not accompany the bulk of the passengers to Chicago, but went from Detroit to Lenawee County, Michigan.

The names 9 to 13 were probably those of a man and his wife accompanied by three children of her deceased husband (Christen) and one child of her present husband (Jacob, 8).

The last syllable of the name "Osterlen" (14) is very doubtful. It may possibly be "Osterboe."

Knud Olson (Olsen) Eie (23) had the same name as that of an early companion of Cleng Peerson, though it may be doubtful that the voyagers of 1821 and 1837 were the same, according to Anderson on page 62. The one of 1821 came from Eide on the island of Fogn, near Stavanger, from which also at least two of the sloopers came, as well as Ole Thorbiorns (Eie, 43) of the present list. Little is known of his later life.

Christopher Danielson (Valle) (Christen Danielsen Walde, 38) came from Aarland in Stavanger Amt, settled in Mission Township, La Salle County, Illinois, and died of cholera in 1849. Apparently Merthe Thordatter (39) was his second wife and after her death he married the widow of Knud Danielsen Wallen (85). His age on the manifest does not agree with the date of his birth, 1780, given by Anderson on page 222.

Christopher (Christen) Danielsen (42) is apparently the correspondent whom Anderson mentions on pages 151 and 223. Anderson's index does not distinguish the son from his father, who had the same name (38). In 1895, according to Anderson, he was residing at Sheridan, Illinois. He had come in "Enigheden" as a small boy and he later married Ann, a daughter of Osmund Thomasen, who had come to America with her father in 1836.

Ole Thorbiorns (43) must be Ole Thompson (Thorbj¿rnson) Eide, named by Anderson on pages 60, 176, and 196 as a passenger on "Enigheden." He was living at Sheridan, Illinois, in 1895. Mrs. Larson in the letter quoted above wrote: "Ole Torbiornson Eye staid with us as long as he was in Rochester. It gave me great joy to do good to him whose father treated me and my old mother so ill, which I can never forget as long as I live. But I .wish that he might be converted. I am willing to forgive him if God is."{27}

Anderson on page 398 speaks of a Bj¿rn Hatlestad (Bion Jorgensen Hellestad, 53 ?) who came to America about 1836, held religious services for a time after his arrival in the Kendall settlement, and died in Dane County, Wisconsin, about 1880. It is not at all certain that Hatlestad was the passenger Hellestad (53).

It is tempting to identify the Me(sk?)ewig family (62-68) with "Even Askvig," who, according to Flom on page 115, came to America in 1837 from Hjelmeland Parish with his wife and family and lived successively in Indiana, Illinois, Texas, and Iowa. The spelling on the manifest is not quite clear.

In spite of the difference in spelling of the surname, Endrd Osmunden Aagagerh (69) must be the Endre Aragebo to whom Martha Larson in her letter refers definitely as a member of this contingent.{28} Likewise Anderson on page 410 mentions Endre and Herman Osmundson Aaragerb¿ as Lutheran laymen who preached in America before 1843.

Possibly Herman Osmunde Auga(s?) (76) is the Herman Osmundson Aaragerb¿ mentioned in the preceding note. Flom on page 94 says that Herman Aarag Osmond, born near Stavanger, 1818, also came to America in 1836, and tells of his subsequent history and settlement at Newark, Illinois. The dates do not quite fit this passenger (76). On page 355 Flom refers to Herman Osmonson and Knut W. Tysland (" ®gir" 39) as settling in Newark in 1838.

Ole Pierson's (78) name is too common to identify him without further information. An Ole Peerson is mentioned by Anderson on page 394 among the first settlers in Bosque County, Texas.

A statement of Malinda Danielson (Malene Danieldatter, 86) is given in substance by Anderson on page 229. The family came from Aurdal, Norway. Her mother's (Siri Oldatter's, 85) maiden name was Sara Olson. Knud Danielson (Knud Danielson Wallen, 84) died in 1838, and his widow married Christopher Danielson (38). Malinda was born on September 29, 1827. Anderson gives her photograph opposite page 228.

Notes
<1> It was through the courtesy of Mr. H. C. Stewart, assistant collector of the port of New York, that the writer came into possession of the lists and other data. In his first letter Mr. Stewart sent the entry for "Restaurationen" and added, "The passenger list is missing and there is no record of any seizure at this port." Later he wrote that the indexes show the entries for the vessels "Norden," "®gir," and "Enigheden," but not for "Den Norske Klippe." The item of greatest interest, however, was his statement that the office had on file passenger lists of "Norden" and the "®gir." The author accordingly arranged to have these lists copied by Miss Dikka Bothne of the American-Scandinavian Foundation. Subsequently he verified and corrected the copies by the originals and prepared them for the press. This was already completed when he had another opportunity to visit the record department at the Customs House and he determined to search for the lists of the other two ships, which the custodians had reported that they were unable to find. To his great delight he was rewarded by finding the complete passenger lists for "Enigheden" and "Den Norske Klippe," and he is therefore now able to offer all four for the use of students of early Norwegian immigration.

<2> Olaf M. Norlie, in his History of the Norwegian People in America, 138 (Minneapolis, 1925) gives 337 as the total number on the four ships. This work will be referred to hereafter by the author's surname.

<3> Willemsen's letter was published by Gunnar J. Malmin in Decorah-Posten, December 5, 1924.

<4> The First Chapter of Norwegian Immigration (1821-1840); Its Causes and Results, 43 ff. (Madison, Wisconsin, 1895). On page 156 Anderson gives the first Sunday after Pentecost as the date of departure, He makes no attempt to give all the names of the passengers of "Norden" and apparently he did not know their total number. Anderson's book will be referred to hereafter by his surname. The Shipping and Commercial List (New York), July 20, 1836, gives the arrival in its marine list as of July 16, 17: "Nor. brig Nordon, Williamson, Stephanda [sic], Norway."

<5> In cases where names used in the notes differ in spelling from those in the lists, the spellings used in the lists are given in parentheses. The numbers following names refer to those prefixed to the names in the lists.

<6> On page 151 Anderson says that Ole Olson Hetletvedt was born in Skjold Parish on April 24, 1824.

<7> George T. Flom, A History of Norwegian Immigration to the United States (Iowa City, 1909). The author's surname will be used for further references to this work.

<8> See the note on p. 31, post, in regard to this child (111).

<9> See numbers 5, 33, and 38 in the list for "Enigheden," p. 47, post.

<10> See the note on Ana Olsdatter (109), p. 31, post. Slogvig's earlier history, taken from Quaker records in New York and Oslo, is given by the writer in "De f¿rste norske Kv¾kere i Amerika," in Decorah-Posten (Decorah, Iowa), November 20, 1925, and "De f¿rste Kv¾kere i Stavanger," in the same paper, June 11, 1926.

<11> Decorah-Posten, December 5, 1924.

<12> See the note on Lars Larson Narrwig (" Enigheden" 4), P. 49, post.

<13> Information about Metha Trulsdatter Hille is given by the writer in "De f¿rste Kv¾kere I Stavanger," in Decorah-Posten, June 4, 1926.

<14> Decorah-Posten, December 5, 1924.

<15> Lars Larson's letter is in Decorah-Posten, December 5, 1924.

<16> In The Shipping and Commercial List, August 15, 1836, is this entry: "Ar. August 13, 14 Swe. brig Norske Klippe, Rolfson, Stavanger, Norway"; and in the United States Gazette (Philadelphia), August 16, 1836, is the following: "New York, Aug. 15, Ar. Swe. brig Norska, Klipde, from Rolfsen, Norway." The historians give neither the length of the voyage nor the date of sailing.

<17> This letter is in Decorah-Posten, December 12, 1924. A letter of about the same date from Lars Larsen to Elias Tastad refers to a woman named Sissel (?), who, he says, lived about twenty-five miles west of Rochester, New York, and spoke the English language very well. The single obscure name stands, perhaps, for Cecilia, whether Cecilia Hallingstad (7) or some other.

<18> An account of the voyage of the "®gir" is given by Theodore C. Blegen, in "Ole Rynning's True Account of America," in Minnesota History Bulletin, 2: 221 ff. (November, 1917). Rynning's account has recently been more fully edited by Mr. Blegen and published under the same title, Ole Rynning's True Account of America (Publica!ions of the Norwegian-American Historical Association, Travel and Description Series, vol. I (Minneapolis, 1926).

<19> See an article by the writer, "The Norwegian Quakers of 1925," in Norwegian-American Historical Association, STUDIES AND RECORDS, I: 63, note 5 (Minneapolis, 1926).

<20> History of the Scandinavians and Successful Scandinavians in the United States, 224 (Minneapolis, 1900).

<21> See ante, p. 38.

<22> "De skandinaviske Setlementer i Amerika," in Billed-Magazine, I: 387 (1869).

<23> See, however, the note on Lars Larsen Narrwig (" Enigheden" 4) P. 49, post.

<24> For accounts of Rynning see Anderson, 202-218; Blegen, in Minnesota History Bulletin, 2: 221 ff. (November, 1917); and Blegen, Rynning's True Account.

<25> The voyage lasted seventy-three days, according to the marine notice published in the United States Gazette, September 16, 1837, which gives the following: "New York, September 15, Ar. Norwegian barque, Enegheden, Pedersen, Norway, 73 days."

<26> Martha Larson's letter is in Decorah-Posten, December 12, 1924, and a translation of part of it may be found in the American Scandinavian Review, r3:361 ff. (June, 1925).

<27>Decorah-Posten, December 12, 1924. The next sentence, accidentally omitted in the publication of the letter, reads: "Hans Ladegaard also staid with us." This name it is natural to regard as belonging to one of the same set of immigrants passing through Rochester, but it is not to be found on our lists. Besides the Norwegians arriving in 1836 and 1837 on these four vessels, there was probably the usual scattered migration through other channels, especially on Swedish ships from Gothenburg. By the route last named a group of Norwegians reached New York in August, 1836.

<28> Decorah-Posten, December 12, 1924.

<<   Previous Page   |   Next Page   >>


 
To the Home Page